In the process of human exploration of science, doing experiments, is the best way to verify theories. But in history, there have been many evil experiments, although their original intention was to benefit society. But from the process and results of the experiment above, these scientists simply do not have a brain. Today we will learn about 5, unethical scientific experiments.
In 1905, a doctor in France sliced a kidney from a rabbit and transplanted it into a child with kidney failure, thinking it would save his life, but the child died a few days later.
In the early 20th century medicine, many doctors believe that the organs of animals and humans, as well as blood is interchangeable, but the effect can be imagined, at that time, there is no such thing as rejection reaction, the cure is purely by luck.
In 1917, a man named Serge. Voronov, a doctor, had always believed that the organs of animals could give human beings great power.
This Dr. Knopf, it is claimed that the testicles of chimpanzees, can make humans stronger and resist aging, so that people regain their youth.
On June 12, 1920, he conducted the first in vivo experiment on his theory of rejuvenation. The subject of the experiment was an old man, in order to restore youth ah, also really went out of his way.
Knopf then took the chimpanzee's testicles and transplanted them inside this old man's scrotum. And publicized that the operation was very successful, and also published the old man's pre- and post-operative photos, in the newspaper.
When the news came out, more than 500 rich people from all over the world signed up for the transplant. Because in their eyes, they can use money to buy youth, is the same as buying time, time is priceless ah.
Wakfu also instantly gathered a large amount of wealth, for which he also ran an orangutan farm to ensure a constant supply of testicles can be.
He then also targeted the female market, wanting to transplant the monkey's ovaries into a woman's body.
However, everything comes and goes quickly. Almost a large number of people who had the surgery had a rejection reaction, and the news spread instantly, and Novo was seen as a fraud. The surgery he performed on the elderly in the first time was actually a scam.
During the same period, many other doctors followed this practice, but none had much fame. Because at that time, behind Love's ah, there was a wealthy American, Evelyn Borthwick's financial support, this is the power of capital.
I wonder what Qin Shi Huang would have thought if such scientific experiments had been conducted in the Qin Dynasty. In this regard, welcome to leave your comments in the comments section.
This is a ridiculous experiment that resulted from circumcision.
David Raymer was circumcised in 1966 when he was seven months old. However, the attending surgeon did not follow the specifications, resulting in David's genitalia being completely burned and irreparably damaged.
Any other parent would have gone crazy at this point in time, as would David's parents. How can a child marry a wife in the future without a penis?
After receiving compensation, the David family also consulted many doctors, but there was no way to restore the genitals.
At this point, a psychologist named John Mani gave a suggestion, he thought that ah, physically unable to become a real man, then turn his mind into a woman, to raise him as a girl.
This John Mani firmly believes that one's gender identity is determined by the environment in which one grows up, not by genes or physiology. And what happened to David is the best opportunity for him to interpret this theory.
David's parents had no choice but to adopt this solution, removing David's testicles at the age of two and buying him lots of dolls, as well as girls' clothes.
John Mani has visited David's home every year since then and continues to provide psychotherapy. But during this therapy, Mani forced David to pose sexually with his brother in various positions. He believes that sex education in early childhood can help David build his gender identity.
But David always resisted, he walked like a boy and insisted on peeing standing up until the age of 12, when his parents told him the whole story.
David also said that at that moment he was relieved inside. Because he had always wondered why his parents would say he was a girl when he clearly looked like a boy.
When the truth was known, David decided to regain his boyhood and at the age of 16, he had an undeveloped genitalia surgically implanted. But for a long time, he took estrogen, and the gender concepts instilled in him, so that his appearance and communication style, and other boys are different, even when using the toilet, the transplanted genitalia will be blocked.
These problems caused him to be severely discriminated against at school and at one point he tried to commit suicide.
With medical advances, David underwent new genital reconstructive surgery by the age of 22. He also married a girl named Jenny in 1990.
Everything was looking up when, in 2004, David took his own life.
His biographer said that David's childhood suffered unbearable ridicule, people did not know that he had physical problems, but all could see that a boy wearing girls' clothes and talking in a girl's way, people gave her the nickname of female knight. Even as an adult, the inner shadow has not been able to erase.
Although John Mani has made great contributions in the psychology world, there is a great controversy in this matter, and David's parents have always believed that it was Mani's psychotherapy that made their son suffer great pain and finally choose to commit suicide.
What do you think about this, you can leave a message in the comments section.
What people know about themselves determines their behavior. We are easily influenced by our environment to obey the wrong orders, and even good people may do things they know are wrong. This change in behavior and psychology is known as the Lucifer effect.
In 1971, the American psychologist Philips. Zimbardo, in order to study the psychology of self-role recognition and thus influence behavior. He spearheaded an experiment that violated ethics and morality. The sponsor was the U.S. Office of Naval Research.
The experiment recruited 75 college students to apply, of which 24 were accepted, considered to be very healthy, no psychological problems, white middle-class family students. 24 people were divided into two groups, one group acted as prison guards, and the other group was a prisoner. For the realism of the experiment, a mock prison was built in the basement of their Stanford University psychology department.
The experiment, which was originally planned to last 2 weeks, was forced to be terminated early on the 6th day.
On the first day, both sets of people were peaceful and nothing happened.
The next day, the group of prisoners rioted, tearing off their body numbers, refusing to obey orders, and making fun of the guards. Zimbardo, in turn, told the guards that you must be harsher.
On the third and fourth days, these students, who acted as prison guards, inflicted a series of evil punishments on the group of prisoners. The prisoners were forced to do push-ups, stripped naked, had their meals, pillows, blankets and beds taken away, and were made to clean the toilets with empty hands. By this time, the situation was completely out of control.
On the fifth day, Zimbardo's wife came to visit this experiment, she accused Zimbardo's experiment is very problematic, has violated the ethics and morality, will cause psychological trauma, and cognitive errors to the experimental subjects.
On the sixth day, Zimbardo decided to terminate the experiment.
Zimbardo concluded this experiment by saying that if innocent people are put into a specific environment and given power over others, these innocent people will begin to abuse their power.
But in 2018, a journalist named Breen, raised controversial questions about the experiment. It is that the power in the hands of this prison guard was given by a higher authority, that is, Zimbardo saw the prisoners riot, before giving the guard the order that must be severe. In other words, if the person in authority, who wants to commit cruelty, can convince others to follow his orders.
But the bottom line of our being human is not brainless obedience, but a clear distinction between good and evil, grasp the proportion.
Many other psychologists have tried to replicate this experiment since then, but their results have been the same. What do you think about this, you can leave a message in the comments section.
Putting a 7-month-old chimpanzee, and a 10-month-old baby together to live and educate together, which one will be more outstanding?
In 1931, the American psychologist Kellogg took his own son and did an experiment like this.
He brought home a 7-month-old chimpanzee from the zoo when his son Donald was 10 months old and took him as his second son, and the Kellogg couple used the exact same method to care for the two children.
And record in terms of body, study and behavior. Soon, terrible events forced the experiment to be terminated at the ninth month.
The Kellogg couple found that the chimpanzees became more and more humane, such as reading faces, asking for forgiveness with kisses and hugs, taking the initiative to signal when they want to go to the bathroom, never urinating or defecating anywhere, and standing on the bench to get the cookies when they see them in the cabinet. In addition to language, he can learn to do anything a child of his age can do.
But in contrast, Donald, his own son, is almost a complete imitation of a chimpanzee. When he is hungry, he imitates the chimpanzee's cry, and when he sees fruit
Letting out violent gasps, crawling on all fours for longer than it takes to walk on legs, and not saying simple words at over a year old.
The couple was dumbfounded by the situation, and if they proceeded, their own son would really be ruined.
After that the chimpanzee was returned to the zoo, but the long period of human life made it very uncomfortable and showed great resistance to its own kind, and it died in 1933.
And Donald's parents helped him correct his bad habits and slowly erase his previous memories after the age of three, entering Harvard University at the age of 19 and becoming a psychiatrist.
When you live most of your life, you find yourself in the bad habits that were forced on you when you were a child, how will you feel about it?
On April 16, 1906, a boy named Wendell Johnson, came into the world. Until he was five or six years old, he was a completely normal child, spoke very fluently, and was fascinated by speech.
But at one point, Johnson's teacher told him, "You seem to be stuttering a little bit, you need to pay attention to it.
After this, Johnson's heart changed, his speech became indecisive, repetition and pauses in his speech became more and more frequent, and finally it really became a stutter.
The family took him everywhere to seek medical help, but there was no way to solve the problem, but it was getting worse.
But Johnson didn't give up, he put his hope in himself and through hard work entered the psychology program at the University of Iowa.
In the society of that time, it was widely believed that stuttering was a congenital disorder. Johnson, on the other hand, believed that stuttering was an acquired psychological problem, just as it happened to himself.
To prove this theory yet, an evil idea sprang up in his mind.
Johnson selected 22 children in a remote orphanage in Iowa, and these children, then, became his living test subjects.
The children were divided into an experimental group of five children who stuttered and a control group of six normal children who would be taught in different ways.
Children in the experimental group, whether they stuttered or were healthy, were told that they had severe stuttering and had to be treated. When the otherwise normal children spoke, they were deliberately interrupted, and thoughts such as don't speak if you can't speak, you have to watch your state of speech, were instilled in the children, after which it led to the entire experimental group of children, who were afraid to communicate with others and developed autism.
The children in the control group, on the other hand, were receiving active therapy, saying that they had excellent language skills and only needed some therapy to recover. However, the results of the experiment did show that five of the children who stuttered remained unchanged and even got worse.
In the experimental group, there was a 12-year-old girl, Mary. She saw the experimental assistant Miss Tudor and felt like her own mother. Maybe one day she will be adopted by her, so in order to get more attention, Mary desperately to show themselves, became the most lively children in the experimental group. But at the same time, she is also the most deeply wounded child, originally articulate, became unable to speak, was ridiculed by classmates, and increasingly lack of confidence.
The entire experiment became a top-secret file and was sealed, but the published research paper made Johnson famous.
It was not until 2000 that this evil experiment came to light, causing worldwide criticism. Some of the victims who were still alive could not accept this reality even more when they knew the truth. They were supposed to have a better life, but they were somehow turned into autistic people.
Mary, 74, said in an interview that the monster experiment had ruined her life, that she already had nothing and had to be used as a test subject, and that these people were devils and Nazis.