The fever of the ancient roads in western Beijing emerged in the early 1990s. In the past thirty years, the ancient road in the west of Beijing has become a historical and cultural tourism card of Beijing. The ancient road, as well as the surrounding temples, inscriptions, ancient bridges, street-crossing buildings, hoof nests, etc., constitute the ancient road culture that contains a lot of historical information. Ancient roads are the roads paved by people in ancient times. Ancient roads are not unique to mountainous areas, because of the continuous upgrading of urban construction in the plains, it is difficult to find traces of ancient roads. The changes in the mountainous areas are relatively small, and with the positioning as a cultured function, the remains of ancient roads are naturally more. Since the early Neolithic period, the East Hulin people have been inheriting and reproducing in the West Hill of Beijing. The history of human survival in Xishan has created the ancient roads in Xishan. The west of Xishan can be connected to Shanxi. The north can be connected to the Mongolian desert. Since ancient times, Xishan has been a place of contention for soldiers, so it was necessary to lay roads to defend against external invasion. There are royal monasteries, and folk temples and Taoist temples built in the West Mountains. Officials and noblemen had to petition for incense and needed paved roads to facilitate walking. Since ancient times, there are many beautiful scenery in Xishan Mountain, which attracts royal families. The literati and scholars visited the mountain, and there were more roads to visit the mountain. Human reproduction and northward migration have led to the gradual increase of villages in Xishan. Villagers need to communicate with each other, and every natural village has a road that leads to all sides. The old road is set according to the location between villages and the natural environment. Therefore, the old roads in Xishan are shaped like a huge spider web, and the direction is determined by the purpose of travel. In the dense spider web of ancient roads, it is difficult to distinguish the functions of, for example, the incense road, the military road, and the commercial road. From the beginning of a 280-page publication, "Beijing West Ancient Road" was promoted to a series of publications such as "Beijing West Incense Road", "Beijing West Commercial Road", "Beijing West Military Road", "Beijing West Xi Ancient Road", etc. The purpose of the subdivision can only be seen as propaganda for tourists. The ancient roads all have multiple functions, the so-called Lutan ancient road, Pangtan ancient road is also by no means a single incense function. Each temple incense is held at a specific festival time, the ancient road is first for folk traffic to and from a section of the extension.
It is understandable to name a section of an ancient road, or give it a certain function, in order to enhance tourism promotion. But the object of naming needs to be in line with the actual direction, and should not play arbitrarily. In the early publicity of the ancient road in the west of Beijing, there is an ancient road called "Yuhe Avenue". With the publicity of books, magazines and television reports, a large number of visitors to the name. I live and work in the West Hill, more than twenty years fascinated by the West Hill climbing to visit the ancient, walking through most of the West Hill ancient road. With more understanding of the West Hill, I can not help but have a different opinion on the "Yuhe ancient road".
The "Yuhe ancient road" was first described in the book "Beijing West Range", and there is a section on "Yuhe Avenue" in the section "Mandao Xiongguan". The beginning is described as follows: "Jade River Avenue is the most important ancient road in the history of Mentougou, also known as the Middle Road, east from the village of Ma Yu, across the Hun River (Yongding River) into the village of Dayu, through the East Xinfang, Mentougou (circle door), Sun Bridge, Tianqiao floating, Mengjia Hutong, Government Hall, Fengkouan, Huangshigang, Cross Road to Wangpingkou stop, the total length of about 27.5 kilometers, this ancient road at the latest in This ancient road existed at the end of the Tang Dynasty, in the year of 906, the warlord Liu Rengong, who was a partisan warlord, set up Yuhe County, whose jurisdiction is roughly similar to the territory of present-day Mentougou District, and this road is a main traffic route through the center of Yuhe County, so it is called Yuhe Road. . (Quoted from the "Beijing West View" "Mandao Xiongguan", "Yuhe Avenue") and later published the book "Beijing West Ancient Road", did not extend the name of "Yuhe Avenue". But "Yuhe ancient road" one has long been famous, various articles on the site repeatedly see "Yuhe ancient road" said. Then the origin of the Yuhe ancient road and the delineation of the Yuhe ancient road should be which line that.
I. The origin of the "Yuhe ancient road".
At the end of the Tang Dynasty, Liu Renkong, a warlord who controlled the Youzhou region by force, changed Guangping to establish Yuhe County. Beijing west of the Fangshan River set of ditches, the vast majority of the territory of the current Mentougou District are part of the Youzhou Yuhe County. (See the 2006 edition of "Mentougou District" chapter 1, section 1, the history of the establishment, page 44) "Liu Rengong, the Lulong Festival Ambassador, was based in Youzhou, he was a long time military guard of the West Mountains, the West Mountains are quite familiar. This person was afraid of life and death, and was afraid that he would become a turtle in a jar because there was no danger in the plain of Youzhou. He built a "magnificent building, similar to the imperial palace" in Daan Mountain, which was "surrounded by a mountain". A number of mountain roads were built for military defense and logistical transportation supplies, radiating to all sides. To ensure logistical supplies, Yuhe County was specially established. Twenty-five Histories. According to the History of Liao, "Yuhe County was established by Liu Rengong in Da'an Mountain, who refined the art of feathering in the Fang Shi Wang Ruo Na, so he cut off Ji County to supply it. Forty miles west of Beijing, a thousand households." Read the history of the Fangjianji" body volume 11 "Yuhe ruined county in the forty miles west of the Prefecture, the original Jixian land. In the Fifth Dynasty, Liu Rengong set.
History and folklore scholars of the former site of Yuhe County have three kinds of statements, one said in Mentougou's Chengzi Village; one said in Mentougou Yongding Xin called the village; another said in the ancient city of Shijingshan; to "40 miles west of Beijing", Shijingshan ancient city is only 20 to 30 miles from the capital. Chengzi and far more than forty miles, only Xin said the village most consistent with the forty miles. According to the records of Mentougou District, there were unearthed articles of Han Dynasty folk in Xixinzong, which is enough to prove that there were human beings living in Xixinzong in Han Dynasty at the latest. The original name of Xinzong was Xincheng, and it was destroyed by flooding. Later, the Yongding River, which emerged from the mountains in Mentougou, formed two rivers in the east and west. The new city was separated by the West River, and gradually evolved into two villages of the East and West Xinzheng. According to historical records and geographical location, most folklore members believe that the ancient Yuhe county town was in Xinzheng village, and the book "The History of Beijing's Establishment Through the Ages" also believes that Yuhe county town was in Yongding Xinzheng village. Liu Rengong Daanshan Hall also has three kinds of statements, one is said to be the teaching military field, one is said to be Xiyuan, and the other is said to be Yuangang. The name of the teaching military field is the original in the fifth generation LiuRenGong in this training, is still the troops station. The above three places either in the = are large Anshan area is not far away, does not affect the direction of the ancient road. It is because there is a big road leading from Yuhe County to Daanshan Pavilion and east to Youzhou City, so as to guarantee the supply of materials and the army's marching conversion, today it is the "Yuhe Ancient Road" that has come into being.
II. The course of the ancient road in the west of Beijing.
The ancient roads in the west of Beijing are actually distributed in an irregular network, and it is not a modern road with a clear difference from the highway. Some of the inter-village passages are as wide as the main roads and are also paved by road stones. Therefore, it is difficult to tell which one is the main road. The network of ancient roads proposed by the author has been accepted by more people and has been seen in the article forum when discussing the ancient roads in western Beijing. In order to promote the ancient roads, highlight the role of ancient roads, artificially named several ancient roads to facilitate the understanding of tourists looking for is also understandable. The ancient road known as "Yuhe Avenue", the starting point and end point are far from Yuhe County and Daanshan Museum. From Mayu, cross the Yongding River through Dayu, East and West Xinfang, Circle Gate, Guan Hall, and Fengkou Saddle to the crossroad and then turn north to Wangpingkou. From Wangpingkou, take Baiyanzi into Qingshuijian, through Yuhuangmiao. Banqiao. Cross the eight ancient bridges to the Thousand Army Terrace. From the northwest of the north platform on the Dachan Ridge, down the Dachan Ridge take the coal nest into the Zaitang River. This section of the ancient road from where to Daanshan, become a point of doubt. Zaitang's Tongzhou Valley or Maran Valley can go up to the old dragon nest area, and then south to Daan Mountain. This way to go near to seek far, this division makes people feel some far-fetched.
1. the passage of the West Mountains start point remains in Mentougou, along the edge of the West Mountains along a line there are a number of ancient roads into the mountains. From the southernmost side of the large ash field, take the ancient road can be to the Ring Terrace Temple, Tanzhe Temple. From Xinzheng Village, where the county seat of Yuhe is located, through Liyuanzhuang. Hegezhuang. Pass the stone factory. Bali Luotuo goes up to Luohuiling via Xifeng Temple and merges with the ancient road from the Great Ash Farm to enter Tanzhe Temple. From Lujiatan to Pine Ridge into Fangshan, Dashihe or Anzigou can be used both as a military road and as a civilian passage.
From He Gezhuang, go northwest to Taiqingguan, Wanfo Temple, cross Lao Aiwa on Hongmiao Ling, go down Sang Yu to Nanxinfang and then on Tianmen Mountain via Donggang to enter Anzigou.
2. Cross the Yongding River from Pangcun ancient ferry port, through Cao Gezhuang. Fengcun. Longkou. Hegang to Lao Aiwa, and converge with the ancient road from Xin weighing. Go over Hongmiao Ling, cross Sang Yu. South Xinfang goes up to Tianmen Mountain and enters Anzigou. The above three routes can converge at Anzigou and go over the mountain to Beiyu via Baihu.
3. Cross the river from Mayu to the west, through Dayu. East and West Xinfang. Go to the circle gate. Go up to the Cross Road via the Guan Hall and go west to Tietuo Mountain. Take the tiger cellar ditch and meet with several ancient roads from Yongding town at Beiyu via Dishuiyan. Take Xiliu water to go to Kyojunchang or Daanshan.
4. Cross the Yongding River from the famous ancient village of Sanjiadian, go up to Chouerling via Liuli Ditch, go up to Niujiao Ling via Xiehejian and Shuiyuzui. Cross the ridge and take a look at the child's stream, and take the ancient road of Shifoling from Shiguyan to Wangpingkou via Wangping village.
In Niujiao Ling westbound to Lok Po, through the East and West Magizhuang to Daosu also has an ancient road to the North Ridge. You can go up to Cross Road and down to Wangping Village. In Wangping mouth several ancient roads converge, out of Wangping mouth go Baiyanzi into the clear water stream. Through the Jade Emperor Temple, Banqiao. Cross the eight ancient bridges one after another to cross the Qingshui River and arrive at Qianjuntai. A road can enter the thousand military station south port ditch, on the small saddle mouth down the ridge west into the west flowing water and the aforementioned ancient road rendezvous. The existing ancient road in Xiaoankou is the military road built during the time of Liu Rengong.
You can get to Daanshan by crossing Beitaizi, entering Hegou and going down to Baodiwa via Xingzhi Saddle. Another way to the west is to go straight up to the crescent saddle and down to Baodiwa to Daan Mountain. The last way is along the ancient road to Dahanling, from the ancient Guancheng to the west, take the tiger pallet beam and look at the coal stream westward to Daanshan.
5. From Dahanling into the coal nest to Zaitang River, the ancient road to Hebei Zhuolu. In addition, there are many ancient roads from the west of Haidian to reach Miaofeng Mountain, and there are ancient roads from Miaofeng Mountain to Shangwedian. Tianzhuang. Dacun and so on. But these ancient roads and the Yu River ancient road is not related to the analysis, not in the discussion.
III. The core of the Yuhe ancient road.
From Ma On Shan to Chouer Ling, there are many traces of ancient roads left at the saddle mouth from south to north. There are seven saddle crossings in order, such as Luo Shu Ling, Nan Da An, Hong Miao Ling, Sang Yu Liang, Feng Kou An, Chouer Ling and Niu Jiao Ling. From Pangcun directly westbound through Fengcun on the Red Temple Ridge, down the Sang Yu through the South Xinfang west on the Tianmen Mountain. Into the house east of Donggang Woomu saddle, west into the Anzigou, this is an ancient road still traceable.
From Yuhe county town (Xin called the village), the west goes to the stone factory, Bali Luotuo, and Shangluo throat ridge. Enter Li XIII over Pine Ridge, this section of the old road is mostly replaced by National Highway 108. Enter Donggang and take Anzigou to meet with the previous road, and go over the mountain from Anzigou to Baihu, Beiyu westbound Lingxi and Xiliu water, which can directly reach the teaching army field (Daanshan Hall).
Daanshan teaching military field and Yongding Xin weighs the village into a straight line, the history of road traffic in Fangshan also believes that it should take Fangshan to Yongding in Mentougou. According to the folklore scholar Mr. Yi Kezhong in the book "Yongding Town", "Wolonggang ancient war wind and clouds" in a test: "Five Dynasties Zhou Dewei captured single Tingsi and Li Zhiyuan rescue Yan out of the mountains, go to Liu Rengong this route. (See "Yongding Town" by Mr. Yi Kezhong "Wolonggang ancient battlefield feng yun") in the Tang Dynasty, in order to prevent the encroachment of the northern peoples, built a road. Also known as the straight road. Liu Rengong of the Fifth Dynasty, who followed closely behind, would not have taken a detour of more than 20 kilometers to take Dahanling.
In summary, the ancient roads in western Beijing should be spread all over the western mountains into a network distribution, it is difficult to say which ancient road is the Yuhe ancient road. If the name of Yuhe County set up in the Fifth Dynasty and called "Yuhe ancient road", then the dense spider web of ancient roads in western Beijing exist in the ancient Yuhe County. If you want to hard to draw out an ancient road Yuhe, then from Mentougou Yongding Xin called the village, west into the Tanzhe Temple, into the Fangshan District to connect the ancient road seems to be called Yuhe ancient road. Because this ancient road are left in the territory of ancient Yuhe County, and is the most straight, most convenient, the most economical ancient road.