World Heritage, as defined by UNESCO and the World Heritage Committee, is "a rare and irreplaceable treasure of humankind" and "a monument or natural site of outstanding significance and universal value recognized by all humankind". There are three categories: World Cultural Heritage, World Natural Heritage, and World Dual Cultural and Natural Heritage.
As of 17:38 on July 25, 2021, China has 56 World Cultural and Natural Heritage properties inscribed on the World Heritage List. Among them, there are 38 World Cultural Heritage sites, 14 World Natural Heritage sites and 4 World Dual Cultural and Natural Heritage sites.
Then there is the World Natural Heritage. This category focuses on the diverse natural aspects of the Earth. In addition to rare landforms that reflect the evolutionary history of the Earth, habitats of rare or endangered plants and animals also fall under the category of World Natural Heritage.
Among the 14 World Natural Heritage Sites in China, there are natural landscapes of special aesthetic and scientific value, such as Shennongjia in Hubei, Danxia in China and Jiuzhaigou, as well as "habitats of threatened animals and plants", such as the habitat of giant pandas in Sichuan and the habitat of migratory birds in the Yellow (Bohai) Sea.
As for the four "cultural and natural heritage sites" in China, as the name implies, they are unique in both their natural and cultural dimensions.
Wuyi Mountain, for example, is a typical Danxia landform, with a rich variety of landform types, or China's biodiversity conservation demonstration area; at the same time, Wuyi Mountain's cultural identity is very unique: three famous mountains, the ancient Min culture important activity area, 2200 years ago, the center of the "modern city" ......
There are three other "composite" World Heritage sites in China, such as Mount Tai, Mount Huangshan and Mount Emei-Le Shan Da Buddha.
China's vast geography and long history have created a rich variety of valuable and cultural and natural heritage, which is a common and precious memory of mankind. 56 World Heritage Sites How many of them have you visited?
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World Cultural Heritage (38 items)
World Heritage, which focuses on artifacts, architectural complexes and sites, is an important testimony to human civilization or cultural traditions and has outstanding historical, artistic as well as scientific value. This is one of the more familiar categories to the general public.
For example, there are "real" proofs of China's long civilization, such as the discovery of the Peking Man site at Zhoukoudian, which ended the debate on whether Homo erectus was an ape or a man; the Liangzhu site, which provided direct evidence of "5,000 years of Chinese civilization"; and the Yinxu site in Anyang, Henan Province, which advanced the credible history of written Chinese records to the Shang Dynasty.
Some represent the pinnacle of science, art and architecture of ancient Chinese society: the royal sites such as the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of the Qin Tombs, the Forbidden City, the Temple of Heaven and the Summer Palace are magnificent, while the folk wisdom embodied in the gardens of Suzhou, the ancient cities of Lijiang, Fujian's Tulou and Pingyao shines brightly. As for the Great Wall, it was the least controversial and most unpredictable "unparalleled masterpiece" in the field when the World Heritage Site was first selected in 1987.
Some of them reflect the interplay of cultures: Mogao Grottoes, Yungang Grottoes, Longmen Grottoes, etc., reflecting the beauty of the intersection of civilizations and the fusion of religion and secularism; the historic district of Macau and Gulangyu Island are "the gathering place of all cultures".
01. Great Wall of China
It starts from Shanhaiguan in Bohai Sea in the east and reaches Jiayuguan in Gansu Province in the west; it is the first military project in ancient China. The history of the construction of the Great Wall dates back to the Western Zhou Dynasty, where the famous story of "Beacon and Fire", which took place in the capital city of Haojing (now Xi'an, Shaanxi Province), originated.
During the Spring and Autumn and Warring States period, the Great Wall entered its first climax as the powers competed for supremacy and defended each other, but the lengths built at this time were relatively short. After Qin destroyed the six kingdoms and unified the country, Qin Shi Huang connected and repaired the Great Wall of the Warring States, which became known as the Great Wall of 10,000 miles. The Ming Dynasty was the last dynasty to repair the Great Wall, and the Great Wall that people see today was mostly built at this time.
On March 4, 1961, the Great Wall was announced by the State Council as the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units .In December 1987, the Great Wall was listed as a World Heritage Site .On November 26, 2020, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage released the first list of national important sections of the Great Wall.
02. Mogao Caves
The Dunhuang Mogao Caves, commonly known as the Cave of a Thousand Buddhas, are located in Dunhuang at the western end of the Hexi Corridor. It was first built during the period of Emperor Xuanzhao Fu Jian of the former Qin Dynasty, and then through the Northern Dynasty, Sui Dynasty, Tang Dynasty, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, Western Xia, Yuan Dynasty and other generations, forming a huge scale with 735 caves, 45,000 square meters of frescoes and 2,415 clay sculptures, making it the largest and richest surviving Buddhist art site in the world.
In 1961, the Mogao Caves were declared one of the first national key cultural relics protection units by the State Council of the People's Republic of China, and in 1987, the Mogao Caves were listed as a World Heritage Site.
03. Beijing and Shenyang Ming and Qing Dynasties Forbidden City
Date of Inclusion: 1987 / 2004
Beijing Imperial Palace in Ming Chengzu Yongle four years (1406) began construction, to Nanjing Imperial Palace as a model camp, to Yongle 18 years (1420) completed, became the Ming and Qing dynasties 24 emperors of the palace. National Day of the 14th year of the Republic of China (October 10, 1925) the National Palace Museum was officially opened. The Forbidden City in Beijing is 961 meters long from north to south, 753 meters wide from east to west, surrounded by walls 10 meters high on all sides, with a 52-meter wide moat outside the city. The Forbidden City has four gates, the south for the Wu Gate, the north for the Shen Wu Gate, the east for the East China Gate, the west for the West China Gate. The four corners of the city walls, each with a graceful corner tower, folk say nine beams and eighteen columns of 72 ridges, describing the complexity of its structure.
Shenyang Imperial Palace, also known as Shengjing Palace, is located in Shenhe District, Shenyang City, Liaoning Province, and was the imperial palace of the early Qing Dynasty. Shenyang Imperial Palace was built in the Qing dynasty in the tenth year of the Emperor's mandate (1625), completed in the first year of the Qing Chongde (1636). The total area of 63,272 square meters, construction area of 18,968 square meters. It is not only one of the only two remaining royal palace complexes in China, but also the only one royal complex outside of China's customs.
04. Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang and Terracotta Warriors Pit
Located 30 kilometers east of Lintong, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, the Mausoleum of the First Emperor of Qin and the Terracotta Warriors and Horses Pit showcase the structural layout, design ideas, and technological and cultural achievements of the Qin Dynasty, and are known as "one of the wonders of the world".
The tomb was built between 246 and 208 B.C. The existing tomb seal is 40 meters high. The layout of the mausoleum imitates the Qin capital, Xianyang, and is divided into two cities, the inner city has a perimeter of about 2.5 kilometers and the outer city has a perimeter of about 6.3 kilometers. The Terracotta Warriors Pit, located on the east side of the tomb of Qin Shi Huang, is a large burial pit of the Qin tomb, which was discovered in 1974. Four pits have been excavated, covering a total area of more than 25,000 square meters, and as many as 10,000 artifacts have been excavated. 1987 was included in the World Cultural Heritage List.
05 Zhoukoudian Peking Man Site
The Zhoukoudian site has discovered 27 fossils and cultural relics of different periods, unearthed more than 200 human fossils, more than 100,000 stone tools and a large number of fire relics and hundreds of animal fossils, etc. It is a treasure trove of human fossils and a comprehensive multidisciplinary research base for paleoanthropology, archaeology, paleontology, stratigraphy, chronology, environmental science and karstology.
On March 4, 1961, the Zhoukoudian site was announced as the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units, and in 1987 it was included in the World Cultural Heritage List.
06 Lhasa Potala Palace Historical Complex
The Potala Palace Historic Complex in Lhasa is the collective name for the Potala Palace and its surrounding buildings in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, China, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The complex was registered as a World Heritage Site in 1994 and expanded in 2000 and 2001.
07 Chengde Summer Palace and its surrounding temples
Built in 1703 (the 42nd year of Kangxi) and completed in the 57th year of Qianlong (1792), the Summer Palace covers an area of 5.64 million square meters and is the largest surviving classical royal garden in the world. The eight temples on the periphery of the Villa, which were built according to the undulations of the mountains, are glorious and different in style. In 1994, the Chengde Summer Palace and its surrounding temples were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
08.Qufu "Three Confucius"
The Confucius Mansion, the Confucius Temple and the Confucius Grove in Qufu, Jining, Shandong Province, collectively known as the "Three Confuciuses" in Qufu, have been a symbol of Confucius' memory, a sacred place of worship for Confucian scholars throughout the ages, and a symbol of the promotion of Confucianism, and are known for their rich cultural accumulation, long history, grand scale, rich collection of cultural relics, and scientific and artistic value.
During his lifetime, Confucius taught here and founded Confucian culture, which has deeply marked the history of China for more than 2,000 years since then. Confucianism, represented by Confucius, has shaped the entire Chinese intellectual, political and social system according to its own ideals, and has become the cornerstone of the entire Chinese culture. 1994 Confucius Temple, Confucius Grove and Confucius Mansion were inscribed on the World Heritage List by the United Nations.
09.Wudang Mountain Ancient Architecture Complex
The ancient buildings of Wudang Mountain were built during the Zhenguan period of the Tang Dynasty and reached their peak during the Ming Dynasty, when successive emperors built Wudang Mountain as a royal family temple. The whole complex was strictly laid out in accordance with the story of Zhenwu's immortal cultivation, and adopted the royal architectural system, forming a "five miles and one nunnery and ten miles of palaces, with exquisite views of dan walls and cui tiles, with buildings and terraces reflecting gold and silver gas, and forest and mountain hugging the painted mirrors", which is the mood of "Immortal Mountain and Qiongge", stretching It is known as a "museum of ancient Chinese architectural achievements" and "the Forbidden City hanging on the cliff".
In 1982, Wudang Mountain was listed as one of the first national key scenic spots by the State Council, and in 1994, Wudang Mountain Ancient Architecture Group was listed as a World Cultural Heritage Site.
10 Lushan National Park
Mount Lu in Jiangxi is one of the birthplaces of Chinese civilization. Its Buddhist and Taoist temples, as well as the landmark architecture of Confucianism (where the most distinguished masters taught), are fully integrated into a natural landscape of unparalleled beauty that has inspired countless artists who have pioneered the aesthetic approach to nature in Chinese culture.
11. Pingyao Ancient City
An outstanding example of an ancient Chinese city from the Ming and Qing dynasties, the ancient city of Pingyao has preserved all its features. Moreover, it presents an extraordinary picture of cultural, social, economic and religious development in the development of Chinese history. Pingyao, Shanxi, is known as one of the "Four Most Well-Preserved Ancient Cities" and is one of only two ancient cities in China to have been successfully declared a World Heritage Site for an entire ancient city.
12 Lijiang Ancient City
The ancient city of Lijiang embodies the achievements of ancient Chinese urban construction and is one of the types of Chinese dwellings with distinctive characteristics and styles. The streets in Lijiang Old Town are paved with red conglomerate and are one of the two ancient cities in China that have been successfully declared as World Heritage Sites with the whole ancient city.
13 Suzhou Classical Gardens
Suzhou Classical Gardens, also known as "Suzhou Gardens", is the general name for the Chinese classical gardens located in Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province. Suzhou classical gardens originated in the Spring and Autumn Period, developed in the Jin and Tang Dynasties, flourished in the Song Dynasty, and flourished in the Ming and Qing Dynasties.
Suzhou is known as the "City of Gardens", with private gardens built in the 6th century, and more than 170 gardens inside and outside the city at the end of the Qing Dynasty, of which more than 50 still exist.
14 . Summer Palace
The Summer Palace is a large landscape garden built on the site of Kunming Lake and Wanshou Mountain, modeled on the West Lake in Hangzhou, and drawing on the design techniques of the gardens in Jiangnan.
On March 4, 1961, the Summer Palace was announced as the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units, together with Chengde Summer Palace, Humble Administrator's Garden and Liuyuan Garden, which were announced at the same time as the four famous gardens in China, and was included in the World Heritage List in November 1998. In 2009, the Summer Palace was selected as the largest surviving royal garden in China by the China World Records Association.
15.Beijing Royal Altar - Temple of Heaven
Located in the Dongcheng District of Beijing, the Temple of Heaven in Beijing was a place where the emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties offered sacrifices to heaven, prayed for grain and rain. In 1961, the Temple of Heaven was declared one of the first national key cultural relics protection units by the State Council, and in 1998, the "Beijing Royal Altar - Temple of Heaven" was listed as a World Heritage Site.
16 Dazu Rock Carvings
The Dazu Rock Carvings represent the highest level of cave art in the world from the 9th to the 13th century AD, and are the last monument in the history of human cave art. It demonstrates the significant development and changes of Chinese cave art styles from different aspects in the Tang and Song dynasties, with irreplaceable historical, artistic and scientific values of the previous caves. It is also known for its grand scale, exquisite carvings, diverse themes, rich connotations, and good preservation.
In December 1999, Dazu Stone Carvings, represented by the "Five Mountains" of Baodingshan, Beishan, Nanshan, Shimenshan and Shizhuanshan, were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
17 Longmen Grottoes
The Longmen Grottoes, located in Luoyang City, Henan Province, are the world's largest and largest repository of stone carving art, and are rated by UNESCO as "the highest peak of stone carving art in China", ranking first among the major grottoes in China.
18 Royal Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties
Inclusion time: 2000 / 2003 / 2004
The royal tombs of the Ming and Qing dynasties are cultural relic buildings carefully planned and built by the Ming and Qing emperors. The mausoleums are located in Beijing, Hebei, Liaoning, Anhui, Jiangsu, Hubei, etc. The main buildings are well preserved and reflect the original appearance of the Ming and Qing royal tombs.
In 2000, the Obvious Tombs, the East Tombs of the Qing Dynasty, and the West Tombs of the Qing Dynasty were inscribed on the World Heritage List, and in 2003, the Ming Tombs of Filial Piety and the Thirteen Tombs of the Ming Dynasty were inscribed on the World Heritage List, and in 2004, the Three Tombs of Shengjing - the Blessed Tombs, the Zhaoling Tombs, and the Yongling Tombs - were also inscribed on the World Heritage List as extensions of the imperial tombs of the Ming and Qing dynasties.
Dujiangyan is located in the west of the city of Chengdu, Sichuan Province. It was built in the last year of King Zhao of Qin Dynasty (about 256-251 B.C.), and is a large-scale water conservancy project organized by Li Bing and his sons, the governors of Shu County, on the basis of the excavation of the former Turtle Spirit, which has been playing the role of flood control and irrigation for more than 2,000 years.
20 Ancient Villages in Southern Anhui - Xidi Village, Hongcun
Xidi and Hongcun ancient residential villages are located in the Huangshan Mountain Scenic Area in Yixian County, Anhui Province, eastern China. Xidi Village covers an area of nearly 13 hectares and has a history of more than 950 years, with 3 ancestral halls, 1 pagoda and 224 ancient houses from the 14th to the 19th century. Xidi village is still well preserved with typical ancient village style of Ming and Qing dynasties, and is known as "living museum of ancient houses".
Hongcun was built in 1131 AD, and 137 ancient buildings of Ming and Qing dynasties still exist. It is the carrier of Huizhou culture, the typical representative of late feudal society in China, and concentrates the characteristics of Huizhou-style dwellings with exquisite craftsmanship.
21 Yungang Grottoes
The Yungang Grottoes, located in Datong, Shanxi Province, with 252 caves and 51,000 stone statues, represent the outstanding Buddhist artistic achievements of China from the 5th to the 6th century AD. The overall layout of the "Five Caves of Tuan Yao" is a classic masterpiece of the first pinnacle of Chinese Buddhist art.
22 Goguryeo royal cities, royal tombs and noble tombs
Goguryeo King's Castle, King's Tomb and Nobleman's Burial consists of the Domestic Castle, Marudu Mountain Castle, King's Tomb (14) and Nobleman's Burial (261), which are the remains of the Goguryeo Dynasty, a slave state from the 1st to the 7th century.
The Goguryeo royal city, royal tombs and noble burials reflect the masterpiece of human creativity and wisdom; as a capital city and burial built in the early part of history, it reflects the influence of the Han people on the culture of other ethnic groups as well as the unique style of mural art, showing the perfect combination of human creation and nature.
On July 1, 2004, the Goguryeo royal city, royal tombs and noble tombs were inscribed on the World Heritage List by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee at the 28th session of the World Heritage Committee under Criterion C of the Cultural Heritage Selection Criteria.
23. Historic Centre of Macau
The Historic Centre of Macau bears witness to over 400 years of mutual exchange and diversified coexistence between Chinese and Western cultures in Macau. Because of the fusion of Chinese and Western cultures, most of the buildings in the Historic Centre have the characteristics of a fusion of Chinese and Western cultures. The main attractions of the Historic Centre of Macau include the A-Ma Temple, the Port Authority Building, the Cheng's House, the Ruins of St. Paul's, and more than 20 other historical buildings.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Yinxu became famous for its excavation of oracle bones, and about 150,000 pieces of written oracle bones were unearthed.
The Yinxu archaeological site is located immediately south of Beijing about 500 kilometers from Anyang City, the ancient capital of the late Shang Dynasty (1300-1046 B.C.), which represented the golden age of culture, craftsmanship and technology in early China, the most prosperous period of the Chinese Bronze Age.
25 Kaiping Watchtower and Village
Kaiping towers and villages, Kaiping City, Guangdong Province for defense of multi-story tower-style rural dwellings - towers and known. History can be traced back as far as the late Ming and early Qing dynasties, to the 20th century in the 1920s and 1930s, towers at their peak of more than 3,000, still intact and preserved 1833. The performance of the late 19th century and early 20th century Kaiping expatriates in South Asian countries, Australia and North American countries in the development process of an important role, as well as overseas Kaiping people and their close ties with their hometown.
26 Fukien Tudou
On July 6, 2008, Fujian Tulou was officially inscribed on the World Heritage List at the 32nd World Heritage Conference held in Quebec City, Canada.
The "Fujian Tulou", which became a World Heritage Site, consists of 46 tulou in Yongding, Nanjing and Hua'an counties in Fujian Province. The group of Tulou in Yongding District, Hongkeng Tulou Group, Gaobei Tulou Group and Yanxiang Lou, Zhenfu Lou, Tianluokeng Tulou Group in Nanjing County, Hekeng Tulou Group and Huaiyuan Lou, Hegui Lou, and Dadi Tulou Group in Hua'an County.
These tulou are either square or round, mainly round, like pearls sprinkled among the green water and green hills of southwest Fujian. As of 2008, the oldest and youngest of the World Heritage Tulou are both in the Chuxi Tulou Group, with the 66-meter diameter Jiqing Building being 600 years old and the 31-meter diameter Shanqing Building being only 30 years old.
27 Wutai Mountain
Wutai Mountain, located in Xinzhou City, Shanxi Province, "Famous Mountains" contains: "Wutai Mountain five peaks towering above the clouds, the top of the mountain without trees, there are such as the foundation of the platform, so called Wutai."
Wutai Mountain is a Buddhist dojo where green temples and yellow temples coexist in China, with 86 places of religious activities, including many imperial temples, where emperors of many dynasties come to worship. The famous ones are: Hsiantong Temple, Tayuan Temple, Bodhisattva Temple, Nanshan Temple, Dai Luo Ding, Jinge Temple, Wanfu Pavilion, Bishan Temple, etc.
Wutai Mountain is one of the four most famous Buddhist mountains in China. In 2004, Wutai Mountain was named one of the ten most famous mountains in China. In June 2009, Wutai Mountain was listed as a World Heritage Site.
28 Dengfeng "Middle of Heaven and Earth" Historical Building Complex
Dengfeng "in the middle of heaven and earth" historical architectural complex includes eight places and eleven excellent historical buildings, including Zhou Gong Jingtai and Dengfeng Xingxingtai, Songyue Temple Tower, Taimuque and Zhongyue Temple, Shaomuque, Qimuque, Songyang Academy, Huishan Temple and Shaolin Temple Complex (including Changin Hospital, Talin and Chuzuan), which have lasted through Han, Wei, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, constituting an image and intuitive architectural history of the Central Plains of China for 2000 years, and is one of the ancient architectural complexes with the longest span of time, the most variety of architecture and the richest cultural connotation in China, and is the true embodiment of the unique cosmology and aesthetics of Chinese ancestors.
29 Hangzhou West Lake Cultural Landscape
Since the 9th century AD, the beauty of Hangzhou West Lake has attracted countless literati and art masters to chant and write. The scenic area is dotted with temples, pavilions, pagodas and gardens, punctuated with exotic flowers and islands along the shore, adding to the infinite beauty of the city of Hangzhou in the south of the Yangtze River. The "West Lake Landscape" is an outstanding example of landscape design under the Chinese landscape aesthetics theory of "unity of heaven and man" and "love of landscape" by Chinese cultural elites in successive generations, and is an excellent example for the 18th century Qing Dynasty It had an obvious influence on the landscape design and gardening art of the 18th century Qing Dynasty and the 9th century East Asian regions such as China, Japan and the Korean Peninsula.
30 Yuan Shangdu Ruins
The site of Yuan Shangdu, located in the town of Shangdu, Xilin Gol League, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is located on the Jinlian River grassland on the bank of the Lightning River, south of the Shangdu River, north of Longgang Mountain, was built in the sixth year of the Mongolian Emperor Xianzong (1256), covering a total area of 250 square kilometers; it is the capital site of the Yuan Dynasty, the birthplace of the Mongolian Yuan culture, the political, economic, cultural, religious and foreign exchange center of the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty.
31 Honghe Hani Terraces Cultural Landscape
Located in the southern part of China's Yunnan Province, the magnificent terraced rice fields of the Honghe Hani Cultural Landscape are widely distributed in the Mourning Mountain area and the southern bank of the Honghe River, covering an area of 16,603 hectares. Over the past 1,300 years of development, the Hani people have created a breathtaking "four elements in one" terrace farming system consisting of forests, water systems, terraced fields and villages. To support the production of red rice, the main crop, they have developed an integrated agricultural system including cattle, ducks and fish.
There are 82 villages dotted with traditional mushroom houses, where the local people have a simple reverence and world view of the sun, moon, rivers, forests and fire in nature. The long-term stable social structure, religious beliefs and the unique rice paddy management system together form an ecological model of perfect harmony between human beings and nature.
32 Grand Canal
The Grand Canal was built in 486 BC, including the Sui-Tang Grand Canal, the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal and the Zhendong Grand Canal, with a total length of 2,700 kilometers, spanning more than 10 latitudes of the earth and eight provinces and municipalities directly under the central government in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Anhui, Jiangsu and Zhejiang, running through the Great Plains in northern China, reaching the five major water systems of the Haihe, Yellow River, Huaihe, Yangtze River and Qiantang River, which was the artery of north-south transportation in ancient China.
On June 22, 2014, the Grand Canal was approved for inscription on the World Heritage List at the 38th World Heritage Conference, becoming China's 46th World Heritage project. The Grand Canal heritage finally included in the inscription is distributed in 2 municipalities, 6 provinces and 25 prefecture-level cities in China. The series of heritage inscriptions were selected from typical river sections and important heritage sites, including 27 river heritage sections with a total length of 1011 kilometers and a total of 58 related heritage sites.
33 The Silk Road: The Road Network of the Chang'an-Tianshan Corridor
At the 38th World Heritage Conference, China, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan jointly nominated the "Silk Road: The Road Network of the Chang'an-Tianshan Corridor" as a World Heritage Site, and were successful. This cultural heritage project, which was jointly submitted by China, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, was officially inscribed on the World Heritage List. This is the first transnational joint inscription project in China and the first section of the Silk Road heritage in the world to be inscribed on the Heritage List.
34 Toji Sites
Tusi ruins (distributed in the Wuling Mountain area at the junction of Xiang, Hubei and Qian provinces, which is a multi-ethnic area in the south, the main types of surviving ruins include Tusi city ruins, Tusi military sites, Tusi official fortresses, Tusi government office complexes, Tusi manor houses, Tusi family burial complexes, etc.)
From the 13th century to the early 20th century, the central authorities of the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties in China implemented the "Tusi system" in the minority regions of southwest China, where the central government appointed local chiefs as "Tusi" to rule the local people hereditarily. The remaining ruins of the Tusi fortress and official offices were once the administrative and living centers of the Tusi.
July 4, 2015 - At the 39th World Heritage Conference held in Bonn, Germany, China's nominated "Chinese Tusi Heritage" was successfully inscribed on the World Heritage List. The "Chinese Tusi Heritage" includes the sites of Yongshun Tusi City in Hunan, Hailongtun in Buzhou, Guizhou, and Tangya Tusi City in Hubei.
35 Zuojiang Huashan Rock Painting Cultural Landscape
The Huashan rock paintings are one of the largest ancient rock paintings at home and abroad, combining the grand scale of the whole (Zuojiang rock paintings), the majestic momentum of a single entity (itself), and the large size of individual figures (in rock paintings), thus creating a majestic momentum that is incomparable to other rock paintings. The images of Huashan rock paintings are mostly created by the method of flat shaping, i.e., projection monochrome painting, using a special soft brush to paint the outline of the images on the rock wall, forming a "silhouette"-like artistic effect, creating the rugged appearance and active movement of Huashan rock paintings, which has an extremely strong artistic influence and is a monumental masterpiece and heritage of the Zhuang ancestors' painting art.
36 Gulangyu Island: Historic International Community
"Gulangyu: A Historic International Community" is an international community with outstanding cultural diversity and modern quality of life, in addition to being a special case of intercultural exchange, witnessing the intersection, collision and integration of values in the early days of Asian globalization. The organic urban fabric of Gulangyu clearly preserves the traces of its evolution, witnessing the continuous integration of diverse cultures into its original culture over the decades.
37 Liangzhu Ancient City Site
The Liangzhu culture dates from 5300-4300 years ago and has been in continuous development for about 1000 years, belonging to the archaeological culture of the late Neolithic period. It is distributed along the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and a total of 136 sites have been discovered.
Liangzhu ancient city site, the first Neolithic city site discovered in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, was the largest prehistoric city site in China before the discovery of the Shenmu Shihuang site in Shaanxi Province, and has been known as the "First Chinese City".
38 Quanzhou: The World Center of Maritime Commerce in Song and Yuan China
Qingjing Temple, Islamic Holy Sepulchre, Caoan Mani Buddha Statue, Magzao Kiln Site, Dehua Kiln Site, Anxi Qingyang HaCaoPu Iron Smelting Site, Luoyang Bridge, Anping Bridge, Shunji Bridge Site, Jiangkou Pier, Shihu Pier, Liusheng Pagoda, Wanshou Pagoda.
World Cultural and Natural Heritage (4 sites)
Mount Tai was regarded by the ancients as a paradise "straight to the emperor's throne" and became a sacred mountain for the people to worship and the emperor to sue for sacrifice, and there is a saying that "if Mount Tai is safe, all the four seas are safe". From the beginning of the Qin Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty, there were 13 generations of emperors who personally climbed Mount Tai in order to make the feast or sacrifice, and another 24 generations of emperors sent officials to sacrifice 72 times. More than 20 ancient buildings and 2,200 stone inscriptions have been left on the mountain.
On November 8, 1982, Mount Tai was listed as one of the first national scenic spots, and on December 12, 1987, it was listed as a World Cultural and Natural Heritage Site.
02 Yellow Mountain
Huangshan Mountain is known as "the most wondrous mountain in the country of AURORA". In its heyday in Chinese history, it was widely praised through literary and artistic forms (such as the "mountain" and "water" styles of the mid-16th century). Today, Huangshan is known for its magnificent scenery - strange pines growing on granite rocks and strange rocks floating in a sea of clouds - and has an eternal charm for tourists, poets, painters and photographers who come to this scenic destination from all directions.
03 Emei Mountain - Leshan Buddha
Mount Emei is the dojo of the Bodhisattva, and religious culture, especially Buddhist culture, forms the main part of the history and culture of Mount Emei, with all the buildings, statues, magic tools, rituals, music and paintings showing the richness of religious culture. There are many monuments and temples on the mountain, including the Temple of the Annunciation, Fuhu Temple, Washing Elephant Pond, Longmen Cave, Shenyang Cliff, and Emei Buddha Light, making it one of the tourist, recreation, and summer vacation destinations in China.
Emei Mountain - Leshan Big Buddha is a World Cultural and Natural Heritage Site
Wuyi Mountain is a famous mountain of three religions. Since the Qin and Han dynasties, Wuyi Mountain has been the habitat of the Huryu Zen family, leaving behind many palaces, Taoist temples and nunneries. Wuyi Mountain has also been a place where Confucian scholars have advocated and taught. Wuyi Mountain is a World Cultural and Natural Heritage Site.
World Natural Heritage (14 sites)
01 Huanglong Scenic and Historic Area
Huanglong to color pools, snow mountains, canyons, forests, "four" famous in the world, plus the beach, ancient temples, folklore called "seven". Scenic area by the Huanglong ditch, Dan Yun Gorge, Mouni ditch, snow Baoding, snow mountain beam, red star rock, west ditch and other scenic spots. The main landscape is concentrated in the 3.6 km long Huanglong ditch, which is covered with calcium carbonate deposits. In 1992, it was included in the World Natural Heritage List.
02 Jiuzhaigou Scenic and Historic Area
Located in northern Sichuan Province, Jiuzhaigou stretches over 72,000 hectares and the long and winding Jiuzhaigou Valley is over 4,800 meters above sea level, thus creating a series of diverse forest ecosystems. The magnificent scenery is enhanced by a series of narrow, cone-shaped karst formations and spectacular waterfalls. The valley is home to some 140 species of birds, as well as many endangered species of flora and fauna, including the giant panda and the Sichuan twisted-horn antelope.
03 Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Area
Wulingyuan is known as a labyrinth of nature, a museum of geology, a kingdom of forest, a hundred gardens of plants, and a paradise of wild animals.
04 Sanjiang River Protection Zone
Located in the Three Rivers National Park in the mountainous region of northwest Yunnan Province, the Yunnan Three Rivers Protection Area includes eight areas covering 1.7 million hectares, and is the upper section of three famous rivers in Asia, as well as one of the richest areas of temperate biodiversity in the world.
05 Sichuan Giant Panda Habitat
Sichuan Giant Panda Habitat, where more than 30% of the world's endangered wild pandas currently live, includes seven nature reserves and nine scenic spots in Qionglai Mountain and Jinshan Mountain, the world's largest and most intact giant panda habitat, a remnant of the original tropical forest of the Tertiary Period.
06 Southern China Karst
Inclusion time: 2007, 2014
The karst region in southern China is mainly located in the provinces of Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi, and the karst landscape is rich and diverse, rich in variation, and unparalleled in the world.
After the inscription of Yunnan Shilin, Guizhou Libo and Chongqing Wulong Karst on the World Heritage List in 2007, the second phase of Southern China Karst, consisting of Guilin Karst (Guangxi), Shiping Karst (Guizhou), Jinfo Mountain Karst (Chongqing) and Huanjiang Karst (Guangxi), was proposed for inscription in 2014. The series contains the most representative karst landscapes from plateau to lowland plain, reflecting a complete and unique karst deepening process, while demonstrating the most spectacular and diverse karst landscape in the world.
07 Sanqingshan National Park
Sanqing Mountain Scenic Spot is located in the northeastern part of Shangrao City, Jiangxi Province, and is named after Yujing, Yuxu, and Yuhua, "three peaks that are as steep as the Taoist three qings sitting on top of them". The total area of Sanqing Mountain Scenic Area is 756.6 square kilometers, of which the core scenic area is 230 square kilometers and the buffer area is 526.6 square kilometers, of which the main peak, Yujing Peak, is 1819.9 meters above sea level and is the source of Xinjiang River.
08 China Danxia
China Danxia, a World Natural Heritage Site, is the 40th World Heritage Site in China. It consists of a series of six nominated sites: Danxia Mountain in Guangdong, Jianglang Mountain in Zhejiang, Longhushan Mountain in Jiangxi, Taining in Fujian, Used Mountain in Hunan, and Chishui in Guizhou.
The Chinese Danxia is a landscape system of steep cliffs, red mountain blocks, dense deep gorges, spectacular waterfalls and turquoise rivers and streams that exemplify the Danxia landscape in China and around the world. The successful application for World Heritage not only demonstrates that the uniqueness and integrity of the heritage value of the six nominated sites in China Danxia has been highly recognized by the international community, but also wins another international brand for China.
09 Chengjiang Fossil Site
The Chengjiang Fossil Site (China), located in the mountainous hills of Yunnan Province, covers 512 hectares and is the best preserved fossil assemblage of early Cambrian marine paleontology, showing the hard and soft tissue anatomy of a wide range of invertebrate and vertebrate life forms. The Chengjiang fossil assemblage records the formation of a complex early marine ecosystem. The Chengjiang site preserves at least 160 phyla and many enigmatic populations, as well as 196 other species, that are evidence of the Earth's biological explosion 530 million years ago - a time when the major fauna of present-day Earth emerged.
10 Xinjiang Tianshan
Xinjiang Tian Shan, the eastern section of the Tian Shan mountain range, is also the main part of the Tian Shan mountain range (the western section is located in the countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan).
On June 21, 2013, four areas of the Xinjiang Tianshan Mountains - Tomur Peak (Aksu Region), Karajun-Kurdening (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture), Bayinbruck (Bayingkolang Mongol Autonomous Prefecture) and Bogda (Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture) - were successfully applied for World Natural Heritage status under the name "Xinjiang Tianshan", becoming the 44th World Heritage Site in China.
Shennongjia forest area is located in the Wudang Mountains and the Three Gorges of Yangtze River, and was awarded the title of "China Natural Oxygen Bar" in September 2018. In March 2019, it was included in the list of the first batch of counties in the area for the protection and utilization of revolutionary cultural relics.
Shennongjia is the first "Triple Crown" listed heritage site in China that has been jointly entered into the three major conservation systems of UNESCO: the Man and Biosphere Nature Reserve, the World Geopark and the World Heritage Site. On July 17, 2016, Shennongjia was inscribed on the World Heritage List, becoming the first World Natural Heritage site in Hubei Province and the 11th in China.
12 Coco Ciri
The Qinghai Cocosili National Nature Reserve is located in the western part of Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, with a total area of 4.5 million hectares. It is the world's best-preserved nature reserve in terms of pristine ecological environment at the beginning of the 21st century, and one of the largest and highest-altitude nature reserves with the richest wildlife resources built in China.
13 Fanjing Mountain
Mount Fanjing, named after the "Pure Land of Brahma", is located at the junction of Yinjiang, Jiangkou and Songtao counties in Tongren City, Guizhou Province, and is the main peak of the Wuling Mountains, a Buddhist monastery and nature reserve in China.
On July 2, 2018, Fanjingshan Mountain in Guizhou Province, China, was inscribed on the World Natural Heritage List at the World Heritage General Assembly in Manama, Bahrain.
14 Yellow (Bohai) Sea Migratory Bird Habitat (Phase I)
The China Yellow (Bohai) Sea Migratory Bird Habitat (Phase I) is located in Yancheng City, Jiangsu Province, and consists mainly of intertidal mudflats and other coastal wetlands. It has the largest intertidal mudflats in the world and is a key hub on the migration route of East Asia-Australia, which has the largest number of endangered species and the highest level of threat, and is also a resting place, feathering place and wintering place for millions of migratory birds worldwide.