Science

A new super-Earth has been discovered! It's 30% water, only 100 light years away, or life exists

Our Earth is a veritable "Mercury", covered with blue oceans, also known as the "Blue Planet".

However, water occupies only 1% of the total mass of the Earth, so we still don't have a lot of water.

A new super-Earth has been discovered! It's 30% water, only 100 light years away, or life exists

In the universe, astronomers have discovered another super Earth, which is 30% water, more "water" than the Earth!

What's even more exciting is that this planet is only 100 light years away and there is the possibility of life.

So, what planet is so amazing that it can be the target of our future migration?

A new super-Earth has been discovered! It's 30% water, only 100 light years away, or life exists

The "Earth" 100 light years away

This planet, which is more "watery" than Earth, is called TOI-1452 b. It is a new object announced in the prestigious international journal Astrophysical Journal, and is also a super-Earth.

The so-called super Earth is not a planet with super Saiyans living on it, but an astronomical term for some Earth-like planets that are larger than Earth, and often much larger.

This TOI-1452 b is about 4.8 times the mass of Earth, more than 70% larger, and more importantly, it also has a huge amount of water!

The presence of water means that life may exist in it.

A new super-Earth has been discovered! It's 30% water, only 100 light years away, or life exists

Astronomers at the University of Montreal have calculated TOI-1452 b and found that it has a density of about 5.6 g/cm3, compared to 5.5 g for Earth, a small difference.

A planet heavier and larger than the Earth, but with a density comparable to that of the Earth, which means that the vast majority of the matter that makes it up is light matter, such as water.

From this, Professor Charles Cadieux, who was responsible for observing it, made an in-depth calculation and found that TOI-1452 b was most likely 30% water.

You know, only 1% of our planet is composed of water, 30% is all water, what will be the concept? Properly a large reservoir of water in the universe.

A new super-Earth has been discovered! It's 30% water, only 100 light years away, or life exists

Using Earth as a reference, there are several conditions that need to be born for life: rocky planet, liquid water, atmosphere, and habitable zone, and TOI-1452 b basically meets all of them.

The star it orbits is a red dwarf, and it is in the habitable zone of that red dwarf, which is massive enough to provide gravity to bind the gas to form an atmosphere.

As for the presence or absence of oxygen in its atmosphere, this is not a critical condition.

Together with its such a huge volume of water, Professor Kardieu has reason to believe that life may exist on this super-Earth.

Even if there is no life, this is a place where life can survive, and it is not impossible to be a candidate for future immigration of human beings.

However, the distance between TOI-1452 b and Earth is 100 light years.

A new super-Earth has been discovered! It's 30% water, only 100 light years away, or life exists

Light Years Away

100 light years for the current human is truly astronomical, basically no spacecraft can achieve this distance of navigation.

However, inside the super-Earths discovered so far, TOI-1452 b is not very far away. Since the first discovery of super-Earths by humans in 1992, thousands of them have been discovered one after another, among which more than 1000 super-Earths have been discovered by the Kepler project alone.

The distances of these super-Earths from us have to be expressed in light years. The distant ones such as Kepler 22-b reach a distance of 638 light years, and the closer one, Gliese 876 (Gliese 876), which has a distance of 15 light years from Earth.

So the 100 light years of TOI-1452 b is actually not too far away and is considered a medium distance super earth.

A new super-Earth has been discovered! It's 30% water, only 100 light years away, or life exists

Astronomers are following the Earth as a reference standard, which has nurtured life after about 3.8 billion years.

Most of these super-Earths orbit around red dwarfs, stars that are not as large, massive, or bright as the Sun, but they have one characteristic that makes them particularly viable.

A star of the mass of the Sun has a lifetime of only about 10 billion years, but a red dwarf can have a lifetime of 20 billion years or more.

There are red dwarfs that are as old as the entire universe, which means that the super-Earths that surround them are older than Earth.

A new super-Earth has been discovered! It's 30% water, only 100 light years away, or life exists

For example, Kepler 10c, the super-Earth discovered by humans, is located in a star system born a billion years after the Big Bang, which is about 9 billion years older than our solar system.

Initially astronomers predicted Kepler 10c to be 17 times the mass of the Earth, but after careful calculations by the Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics at Harvard University, it is 2.5 times the diameter and 7.4 times the mass of the Earth.

The head of the project, Professor Xavier Dumusk, joked that the planet is a Godzilla for the Earth.

A new super-Earth has been discovered! It's 30% water, only 100 light years away, or life exists

Although Kepler 10c is much older than Earth, it does not appear to be in a condition suitable for the birth of life.

Its close proximity to its own parent star causes its surface temperature to be above 200°C and its rotation period to be 45 days.

Strictly speaking, Kepler 10c is not in the habitable zone of the galaxy.

And since Kepler 10c is 560 light-years from Earth, it is very difficult to observe it because the light from the parent star would obscure a large part of it.

So there are a number of astronomers who are skeptical about the existence of Kepler 10c, and they think that maybe it's an oops.

A new super-Earth has been discovered! It's 30% water, only 100 light years away, or life exists

The possibility of super-Earth migration

Can these super Earths, or not, be the object of future human migration? In particular, planets like TOI-1452 b with very high water content can also solve the water problem of human beings by the way.

However, do not be confused by the name of super-Earths, it is just what they are called, it does not mean that life must exist on super-Earths and must be suitable for life to live.

Super-Earths are generally much larger in mass and volume than Earth, and their surface gravitational acceleration, according to calculations performed by gravity, is often several times greater than that of Earth.

If humans boarded such a planet, they would be subject to enormous gravitational force, doubling their own gravity, and it is likely that their knees would not be able to stand to fall directly to their knees.

A new super-Earth has been discovered! It's 30% water, only 100 light years away, or life exists

Do not underestimate the gravity, whale stranding even if you save the whale may also die, because their own gravity has hurt the organs.

Mankind's ascent to Super Earth is like a whale leaving the ocean.

In addition to the huge gravitational acceleration of the super Earth, its distance from the Earth is also uncrossable.

Human vehicles have had to make great efforts to leap the solar system and have not left completely so far.

To get to Super Earth, humans must overcome the obstacles of space and time.

A new super-Earth has been discovered! It's 30% water, only 100 light years away, or life exists

In space, mankind cannot make the leap of 1 light year, and even if mankind decides to head towards light years away, mankind faces another challenge - longevity.

In the case of Voyager 1, for example, it will be the first human-made vehicle to fly out of the solar system, which will still take about 30,000 years.

It is difficult to break 100 years of a person's life span. 30,000 years requires at least 1,000 generations of waiting.

Humans can still reproduce on Earth, so in the cosmic voyage, do you fly while giving birth? This is the shackles of time to humans, and space together to form a barrier that humans can not cross.

A new super-Earth has been discovered! It's 30% water, only 100 light years away, or life exists

Another point is how to solve the energy problem. The ship's navigation needs to constantly provide energy, the most advanced human nuclear energy batteries can only be used for more than 80 years, after the voyage will have to rely on inertia.

Most of the functions on Voyager 1 have been turned off in order to put the only remaining energy to good use.

Even then, its battery will still be depleted by 2025.

Humans in spaceships must also maintain the internal environment, which consumes even more energy, unless they carry a very large number of nuclear batteries for relay energy supply.

But this must carry thousands of nuclear batteries, the weight of the ship is limited, it is impossible to carry so many nuclear batteries.

Therefore, the probability of human migration to a super-Earth is almost zero.

A new super-Earth has been discovered! It's 30% water, only 100 light years away, or life exists

The Danger of Super Earths

Not only is humanity unable to travel to the Super Earth, but it may also face the dangers it creates.

First of all, if life does exist up there, then according to the age of the super Earth, it is likely that it has developed an extraterrestrial civilization, much more advanced than Earth.

According to Stephen Hawking's warning, don't mess with aliens at will, they are likely to crush earth humans like an ant.

Second, there are super-Earths around host stars that are not red dwarfs, but red or super-red giants, a class of stars that are aging and extremely unstable and about to die.

A new super-Earth has been discovered! It's 30% water, only 100 light years away, or life exists

They will either collapse or produce a supernova explosion that produces an intense gamma-ray burst.

These gamma rays will come to Earth and pose some threat to the planet.

Although the Earth's magnetic field can protect the Earth from a large number of cosmic rays, but in the face of such intense gamma rays, I am afraid that the magnetic field can not guarantee that the Earth's whole body to retreat.

A new super-Earth has been discovered! It's 30% water, only 100 light years away, or life exists

Thus, the environment in which the super-Earth is located does not necessarily hold the promise of life; rather, it may be facing death.