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Do ghosts really exist in this world? Does the magical world really exist? Do parallel universes really exist only in science fiction?
All of these questions sound so unreal, but after reading today's narrative, you may have a whole new understanding.
Is light a particle or a wave?
If there is an ultimate in this world, it must be light.
The appearance of light constitutes our colorful world, light is the hope of all life, and the speed of light is the limit of the movement of the universe.
The study of the nature of light began centuries ago. What exactly is light and why can he fill up the whole space in an instant? In 1678, the scientific community was already divided into two schools of thought on the perception of light.
They believe that light is a stream of particles that fly out from a light source in a straight line and fill the entire space.
The other school of thought, represented by Huygens, believes that the particle flow argument, simply cannot explain the diffraction phenomenon of light, so they insist that light is a kind of fluctuation, just like water waves, is fluctuating propagation.
At that time, these two schools of thought argued and expressed their views, except that more people sided with Newton because he was already the top presence in logistics.
But this soon changed, and in the early nineteenth century, an all-powerful scientist emerged, and with a simple experiment, let fluctuations say prevailed.
This all-round scientist named Thomas Young, he is proficient in more than a dozen fields of science, or a very good at performing acrobatics of the doctor.
In order to verify whether light propagates by particles or by fluctuations, Thomas Young designed the "Young's double-slit interference" experiment.
This experiment is very simple, he first designed a small hole in the light source, and then let the light source through two parallel slits, and finally projected onto a flat surface.
In this experiment, if the image projected by light is two straight lines, it proves that light is propagated out in a straight line like an emitted bullet. But if the image shows a zebra line shape, it proves that the light is traveling in fluctuations when it passes through the two gaps.
This is because only fluctuation propagation allows wave peaks to superimpose and wave valleys to cancel, forming different intensities of light and thus projecting zebra lines.
Thomas Young's experiments resulted in images that projected zebra lines, thus confirming that light travels in fluctuations.
In fact, Huygens' fluctuation flow and Newton's particle flow are not wrong, because light itself is both a wave and a particle, and it satisfies both properties, that is, the "wave-particle duality" of light.
But Yang's double-slit interference experiment did not end there. In the following century, scientists made several improvements to this experiment and also discovered another strange phenomenon.
Once, scientists reduce the intensity of the light source so that the source emits one photon at a time. This situation is like a point-blank shot from a machine gun, in which case there is no interference between particles of light and particles of light.
By definition, after there is no interference, the photon can only pass through one of the two gaps, and what is presented should be two straight lines. But the amazing thing is that this experiment yields, still, an image with interference fringes, what is going on?
In order to work out this problem, scientists conducted a large number of experiments, but the result caused a great confusion in the scientific community.
The chaos of the scientific community
How exactly does light propagate? Scientists have done countless experiments to observe this truth, only to spark a major conflagration in the scientific community.
In order to study why light particles produce interference fringes without interference, the scientists decided to install a camera in front of the double-slit plate and observe through the camera how light actually produces interference.
Soon the results of this experiment came out, these particles of light just follow the rules through the double slit, and then fell to the panel.
It would have been the end of the matter after this result. But magically, what was originally a zebra striped pattern suddenly turned into two vertical bars.
It is important to know that the whole experimental process, except for the installation of a camera shot, there is no change, why the final pattern will change? In order to figure out this problem, scientists repeatedly conducted numerous experiments, and finally they came to a jaw-dropping conclusion.
Whenever the camera is turned on, photons are shot out in a straight line in the form of particles, while when the camera is turned off, the photons take on the characteristics of waves.
This conclusion completely overturned the three views of scientists, because he seemed to be saying that light propagates according to what way, depending on whether you have peeked at it.
If you peek at it with a camera, it travels in a straight line, and if you don't peek at it, he travels in a wave.
Yet that's not the biggest headache for scientists.
In 1979, the American scientist Wheeler did an upgraded version of the double-slit experiment, this time placing the camera behind the double-slit plate, and designed to temporarily decide whether to turn on the camera after the particles passed through the plate.
Wheeler originally thought that after the particles through the double slit and then suddenly open the camera, which allows the light particles may not have time to change the propagation. However, the results of this experiment, once again let the scientists baffled.
Because as long as the camera is turned on, even in the moment when the particles fall on the screen, it will change the way it propagates. For this result, scientists give two possibilities.
The first is that the photon is able to predict the future, and he already knows whether the camera will turn on or not when he fires it out.
The second is that photons have the ability to react beyond the speed of light and can change their choices at a moment's notice.
Both of these conclusions are very incredible. Can the future determine the present? Does the world possess a speed beyond the speed of light? Scientists' heads are as big as buckets at this point.
It was at this time that one relevant experiment after another by scientists joined the debate.
This experiment involves quantum entanglement, in which a light particle is emitted while passing through a BBO crystal during the period, resulting in a pair of twin entangled photons with half the energy.
The twin entangled photons with halved energy are so amazing that, in time, at distances of tens of thousands of meters, whenever one side changes, the other side changes as well.
According to this characteristic, scientists designed two paths for each of the two photons, the first photon directly through the slit projected onto the screen, the second photon path is longer, and to pass through a half-reverse half-lens.
This half-reverse half-lens has a half probability of reflecting the number two photon and a half probability of passing through the number two photon.
Here comes an interesting thing, because the second photon route is longer, the first photon is already presented on the screen when the second photon has not yet reached the half-transverse half-lens.
Since the two photons have a tight entanglement link, this is the same as saying that the number two photon does not yet know whether it will pass through the half-anti-half lens when the number one photon already knows the answer.
It is as if photon number two knew whether people were observing before it reached the half-transverse half-lens, and then told number one about this result, so that number one could be assured of showing the results of particles or fluctuations.
Ben wanted to study the nature of photons, but ended up seeing something beyond science. For this result, Einstein was very torn, and it became a ghost that haunted him for the rest of his life.
By studying the nature of light through quantum entanglement, it turns out that light can actually influence the present through the future. What is the magic in this?
In response to quantum entanglement, the great scientist Bohr made a summary. According to Ball, in the world of quanta, anything, including photons, can be in a superposition state at any time, with multiple possibilities co-existing, just as photons are both particles and waves.
And the superposition state of things cannot be measured, which is why it is a different result when the camera is on and when it is off.
The weirdest thing is that while things in the quantum world can be superimposed, they cannot be observed.
This superimposed state disappears once we start having to observe this action. How to explain this matter? Perhaps it is most intuitive to explain it in terms of Schrödinger's cat. Put a cat, a bottle of poison and a radioactive atom in a box.
When the radioactive atoms decay, the organ is triggered and the cat will be poisoned.
Before the box is opened, the radioactive atoms are in a superposition of decaying and non-decaying states, and the cat may be dead or alive at this time.
Only when we open the box to observe, we can learn whether the cat is dead or alive.
Ball's interpretation of the quantum holds that there is great uncertainty in the quantum realm, something that many cautious scientists strongly disagree with.
Einstein, for example, mocked Poe by saying, "God doesn't roll the dice," but Poe responded defiantly, "Don't go directing what God should do."
Later, Einstein and Ball led a dozen scientists respectively to launch a dramatic debate, the presence of a dozen people, eighty percent have won the Nobel Prize, can be described as the pinnacle of human scientific debate, known as the scientific world of Mount Hua.
Soon after, another scientist proposed the theory of parallel worlds. For example, Schrödinger's cat, when we open the box, the world appears parallel worlds, some worlds in which the cat is dead, and some worlds in which the cat is still alive.
Although this idea also caused a great deal of backlash, Einstein remained in a quantum tangle.
Einstein later joined many scientists to write a paper assuming that there is a light particle that decays and splits into two entangled particles number one and two, then to ensure that the total spin of the two particles is zero, the two particles must be spinning in opposite directions.
If these two particles were placed at a distant distance, for example, one on the Earth and one on the Sun, would they still exist in such an entanglement? At this time we observe the number one on the Earth and find that he is downward and the particle on the Sun should be upward.
If he may be up when we are not observing number one on Earth, then number two on the Sun will become down.
The transmission of this signal is completely synchronized, and this synchronization is far beyond the speed of light, even a ghostly force that is difficult for humans to understand.
You know that once there is a presence beyond the speed of light, this space are going to collapse, and perhaps only the power of ghosts, can produce this phenomenon.
Originally Einstein did not believe that such a force existed, but in 1995 a Chinese-American scientist made a ghost imaging experiment that proved that quantum entanglement did exist and that the action of super-distance, which Einstein could not understand, did exist.
To this day, although quantum entanglement is still not fully explained, it has been applied to the field of science.
For example, China's self-developed nine-chapter quantum computer, is the use of quantum entanglement characteristics and developed, the calculation speed of this computer, has been unable to use the computer to name.
For example, to calculate the same problem, a supercomputer takes 600 million years, while a nine-chapter quantum computer takes only 200 seconds.
It is hard to imagine how the world will be turned upside down when the quantum field is widely used.