In our red blood cell membrane, there are many antigens, these antigens are like small hands, if they encounter different shapes of red blood cell antigens, they will grab each other, so that a large number of red blood cell agglutination will be formed, if they encounter the same shape of antigens, they will be in peace with each other, we are based on the different types of antigens on red blood cells, to classify the blood type.
So far, scientists have discovered more than 30 blood group systems and more than 400 blood group antigens, but the main ones are the ABO and Rh blood group systems.
What is Golden Blood
And in Jiangsu, scientists have discovered a rare blood type worldwide, the almighty golden blood. The Taizhou People's Hospital affiliated to Nanjing Medical University saw a woman with severe anemia, and when her blood type and blood group antibodies were examined, it was found that she was not only RhD negative (commonly known as panda blood), but her RhC, Rhc, RhE, and Rhe were all negative (RhNULL), plus her ABO blood type was O. There were no longer any blood group antigens on her red blood cells.
This means that the woman has the world's rarest blood type, Rh-null, and the investigation found that the patient's sister has the same blood type, RhNULL O. Rh-null, known as "golden blood", has a 1 in 6 million chance of being found in the population. Since the discovery of this blood type in 1960, there are less than 50 cases worldwide, and only 4 cases have been reported in China.
Why Golden Blood is all-powerful
We can think of antigens as the back door into the bloodstream, and then the immune system is the gatekeeper. If the immune system recognizes an antigen, it will let the cells carrying it through; if it fails to recognize the antigen, the body's defense system will kick in and destroy the invader. This is why blood transfusions require a blood type match.
And gold blood is all-powerful because, because their red blood cells lack the A, B and RhD antigens, the recipient's immune system cannot recognize these cells as foreign and thus will not respond to them. This means that it can be accepted by anyone with a rare blood type in the Rh blood system.
This is a boon for others and of great scientific value to scientists as golden blood can help researchers unlock the mysteries of the complex and intriguing physiological role of the Rh system.
Why golden blood is a disaster for the owner
But it's a disaster for the owner. It makes life very dangerous. This blood type lacks all the antigens associated with Rh, and there are also antibodies corresponding to all the antigens, which means that the input of any other blood type will trigger an immune response and cause a transfusion accident. Therefore, people who have golden blood can only receive golden blood, if once other types of blood are imported, the body will produce antibodies corresponding to that blood, and a hemolytic reaction will easily occur during the second transfusion thus endangering lives.
And because this blood type is so rare, one will find it difficult to find donors and the blood is difficult to transport across borders. Thomas in Australia is a golden blood owner who has lived a careful life since he was a child, and outside of his parents' fear of any accidents happening to him, he has never been to countries that lack modern hospitals. He also carried a special card with him that confirmed his extremely rare blood type in case he was admitted to a hospital.
In the past 50 years, only 43 cases of golden blood have been found worldwide. The Golden Blood in these 43 friends is compatible with any Rh blood type, including yours and mine, and is truly a universal donor. At the same time, however, it is almost impossible for them to get compatible blood once they themselves have lost a lot of blood.
And the most troublesome thing for the sisters is not even this. We should know that the fetus develops in the womb and relies on the placenta to obtain nutrition from the mother, while both sides remain relatively independent, which means that the mother and the fetus may not be of the same blood type.
And during the delivery of the pregnant mother there is often the blood of the child, which enters the circulation of the mother, which leads to a state of sensitization of the rare blood type inside the mother's blood, which produces the corresponding antibodies.
If it is the first child, there is no effect on the child in this case. But for the second child, the antibodies may enter the fetus through the placenta, causing hemolysis and anemia, which can lead to water, heart failure and death in the womb
Golden blood is the universal blood for others, worth a thousand dollars, but for those who have it, it is a disaster.