As the temperature gradually rises, people start to turn on air conditioners and fans to lower the temperature of their space and make themselves cool. The rise in temperature often makes people irritable and irritable, drowsy and confused, or even in heat stroke and shock, and compared with the temperature in other regions, the Sahara Desert seems to be more like a place close to hell.
It has endless yellow sand, the sun that releases heat without care, ultraviolet rays that can make people sunburn, and it can be said that everywhere is full of danger. So how did such a hellish place come to be? How deep is the Sahara Desert?
Mankind has always been exploring the unknown, looking for answers, has been outside the earth, but also down to the depths of the ocean, in the continuous exploration of the natural world, mankind gradually to the Sahara Desert "the bottom" to understand. In this article, we will explain the formation of the Sahara Desert, the composition of the Sahara Desert, the crisis in the desert, and what is under the sand.
The formation of the Sahara Desert
From outside the earth, the ocean occupies 71% of the earth, humans live in only 29% of the area, even the 29% of the part is also occupied by the desert area of about 1/10. one of the largest desert is located in the northern region of Africa, it is the famous Sahara Desert, covering an area of 9.32 million square kilometers, this desert occupies 32% of the total area of the African continent, equivalent to the total area of the United States states combined This desert occupies 32% of the total area of the African continent, which is equivalent to the total area of all U.S. states combined.
Faced with such a vast desert, scientists were interested in learning about the history of the Sahara Desert, its predecessors, and the conditions that led to its formation. After a series of sampling studies and data inference, they were surprised to find that the Sahara Desert, which is now covered with yellow sand, was a prairie and even a lake more than 10,000 years ago.
Why has an oasis now become the hottest place in the world, shaped like hell? Data show that the Sahara Desert is hot and dry all year round, with summer temperatures exceeding 54 degrees Celsius and almost no rainfall, making it arguably one of the harshest regions on Earth in terms of climate survival. The reason for all this is related to the tilt angle of the Earth's rotation.
Due to the decreasing angle of tilt, the area of direct sunlight on the Sahara was repeatedly reduced, and the monsoon in northern Africa began to shift at that time, the Sahara region had no rainfall all year round. By about 5000 years, it had become a desert. Scientists also found that this transition from oasis to desert is not one-way, but with the rotation tilt angle has been changing, the cycle is tens of thousands of years.
Since the Sahara Desert is transformed from an oasis, what are its components in general? What is the depth of the deepest sand dunes that have been piled up?
Composition of the Sahara Desert
Some people may think that the Sahara desert is made of sand, but it is not. Most of the geological structure of Sahara Desert is plateau, plain and rock layer, not only sand as most people think. But I have to admit that it is most recognizable and memorable as a yellow sand.
It has been calculated that if the sands of the Sahara desert were spread evenly over the original area, the average height of these sands would reach 150 meters, which is equivalent to the height of a 50-story building. Although this is something impossible to achieve in practice, it shows the sheer amount of sand in the Sahara Desert, which is on the same shoulders as the number of stars in the universe.
The Mariana Trench is the deepest part of the ocean that has been explored by humans so far. It reaches a depth of more than 10,000 meters and is known to be the closest to the Earth's core. In the Sahara Desert, mankind has also tried to find its deepest point, and the highest dune mankind has found so far is 180 meters, but this is not the deepest part of the Sahara Desert. Studies have found that the deepest part of the Sahara Desert is about 320 meters, and the lowest dune is about 90 meters.
These yellow sand may also put you in a desperate situation, quicksand is actually the principle of being infiltrated with water sand, but it is denser than human beings, the principle that humans do not fall into it completely, but if a person struggles haphazardly, it will accelerate the deposition of clay, enhance the stickiness of quicksand, and finally fall deeper and deeper. The method to get out of the trap is to remain calm, slowly shake off the clay on the feet, and repeatedly try to pull out the legs.
In the desert, there are many other potential hazards to be aware of besides quicksand.
Crisis in the desert
Such a forbidden area of life that ordinary people do not want to step into, but attracts many explorers to try. Known as the "man at the top of the food chain", Master Bey has walked across the Sahara Desert, he has encountered many crises throughout the process, using his own experience to teach how to survive in the desert, although not very imitable, but still admirable.
The first is the lack of water resources, water is the source of everything, almost no living thing can survive completely without water. Speaking of the Sahara Desert. It gives people the feeling of a barren land with no signs of life. A big reason is the lack of water. No rainfall all year round, and high temperatures, making the whole area arid and hot.
The second is food, the desert in addition to sand is rock, the occasional few green plants may also contain highly toxic. You may encounter scorpions, small camel spiders, although they have some parts of the body poisonous, but in the case of your lack of food, remove the toxic parts can still be eaten.
Then there is the temperature, over 56 degrees Celsius will make you dizzy within a few hours and you need to wrap your head in a hijab like the Arabs do to reduce direct sun exposure. And as soon as possible to find the shade, if you are lucky to meet the date palm tree, you can also pick the dates on the tree to replenish energy, dates contain a lot of sugar, vitamin C, is the best desert food.
In addition to the heat, the low temperatures at night in the desert often take lives. Because of the high specific heat capacity of sand, it absorbs heat very quickly. But once the night time its temperature will drop rapidly. In addition, the temperature of the surface will be reflected to the atmosphere, and then reflected back by the atmosphere.
But in the desert region, the sun is abundant during the day, reaching the ground more solar radiation, the temperature also rises quickly; at night, because the desert region is very dry and lack of water, so the atmosphere to the ground reflected back very little heat, it can not form a role of insulation, resulting in its heat loss very quickly, which is why in the tropics there is such a large temperature difference between day and night.
In the desert, in addition to these, you may also encounter poisonous snakes - desert vipers, its teeth are very large and toxic, its bite prey will usually die within seconds, mainly mammals and lizards for food, in addition, its camouflage technology is first-class, if you are not careful to step on it, will be in mortal danger.
All these crises are happening on the surface of the desert, so what is there at the bottom of the sand?
What's under the sand
Although it is not possible to dig up all the sand in the Sahara Desert, we can use instruments to survey and collect information. After a series of probes, scientists found fossilized fish, as well as valleys and riverbeds, under the rock layers. In other words, more than 10,000 years ago, the Sahara Desert was an oasis, with meadows and lakes. The reclaimed riverbeds and grasslands are an indication that there was also a human civilization that also emerged here.
During subsequent surveys, an extinct volcano at an altitude of nearly 3,500 meters, a large number of oil wells, and prehistoric ruins were discovered. If there is anything beneath the Sahara Desert, it is buried culture and resources. It is not so mysterious, under the sand is the rock, and the bottom of the rock is the core of the earth, the desert is also the same as the ocean, their deepest, are the core of the earth.
Warriors of the desert - Berbers
As mentioned earlier, the Sahara Desert is so crisis-ridden that almost no one sets foot in it, but there are some people in the world who have lived their whole lives in the desert. These people are - the Berber nomads. They regard the desert as their home and happy land. Adults herd sheep in the desert, children play in the desert, they have their own unique way of survival, and rescued many people who were lost in the desert.
The Berbers were able to survive in the desert because they had the most important skill of all - finding water. In the mind of every Berber there is a map marking the various locations of water wells in the desert, and this information they pass from generation to generation. They herd goats, raise camels, and feed on sheep, for whom everything in them is useful.
They are the warriors of the desert, not afraid of the hot sun, not afraid of solitude, religiously continue their ancient and long-standing tribal civilization.