Culture

How many of China's 33 ancient city walls have you visited?

A city is a symbol of human development to an important historical stage, and a city wall is an important symbol of a city. China, as an ancient civilization, has a very long history of city wall construction, with a rich variety of types and the largest and most spectacular number. This is a collection of 33 existing you sites to share with you.

1

Xi'an City Wall

The ancient city wall of Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, was expanded from the 3rd to the 11th year of Hongwu of the Ming Dynasty (1370-1378 AD), based on the walls of the Tang and Yuan Dynasties. It is rectangular in plan, 12-14 meters wide at the top and 15-18 meters wide at the bottom, with a perimeter of about 13.7 kilometers.

How many of China's 33 ancient city walls have you visited?

Outside the city walls there is a moat 20 meters wide and 10 meters deep. The wall is covered with green bricks, thick and solid, and gates are opened on four sides, east, west, north and south. On the gates, there are city towers, arrow towers and gate towers, which are lofty and imposing. There is an urn city between the city tower and the arrow tower. The four corners of the city have a corner tower. This is the only complete ancient large city wall in China, which has been turned into a park around the city.

2

Nanjing City Wall

The ancient city wall of Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, was built in the 26th year of the Yuan Dynasty (1366 AD) and completed in the 19th year of the Ming Dynasty (1386 AD). The inner perimeter of the wall is 33 kilometers, 21 kilometers remain, 14-18 meters high and 8-12 meters wide at the top, with a masonry structure.

How many of China's 33 ancient city walls have you visited?

There were 13 city gates, 4 of which are still in existence. There are water gates, sluice gates or culverts where the walls are connected to waterways. There were 13,616 battlements built on the wall, but some parts of the wall are in disrepair. The scale of the Nanjing City Wall is the first in the world, especially the China Gate (Jubao Gate), which is the world's top.

3

Jingzhou City Wall

The ancient city wall of Jingzhou City, Hubei Province, is said to have been built by Guan Yu when he was guarding Jingzhou during the Three Kingdoms. It was originally an earthen city wall, but was converted into a brick wall in the Southern Song Dynasty. The present wall was rebuilt in the 3rd year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty (1646 AD).

How many of China's 33 ancient city walls have you visited?

The overall shape of the wall is irregular oval, the wall is 8.83 meters high, 10 meters wide at the bottom, 11.3 kilometers in circumference, 3.75 kilometers in diameter from east to west and 1.2 kilometers in diameter from north to south, with a total area of 4.6 square kilometers. The bottom is made of large bar stone, glutinous lime slurry grouted and stacked, the walls, gates, battlements, etc., are now better preserved, ancient and ancient, in the form of a swimming dragon. Jingzhou moat, also known as waters, is the first line of defense of the ancient city. The moat is 10,500 meters long, 30 meters wide and 4 meters deep.

4

Xiangyang City Wall

The ancient city wall of Xiangyang County, Xiangfan City, Hubei Province. The original wall was destroyed at the end of the Yuan Dynasty, and the present wall was rebuilt in the early Ming Dynasty and is slightly square. There are Zhongxuan Building (commonly called Huixian Building) and Kui Xing Building in the southeast corner, Lion Building in the southwest corner, and Lady City in the northwest corner.

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In the early years of Ming Hongwu, Deng Gui, the Duke of Wei, defending Xiangyang, extended the northeast corner of the city wall to the riverside and opened two additional gates (the Great Northern Gate and the Long Gate), together with the original four gates, and built a city tower each. Outside the six gates there were urn cities, and outside the urn cities of the east, south and west gates there were sub-cities, and outside the urn cities and sub-cities there were suspension bridges (later changed to stone bridges). The perimeter of the city wall is 7.6 kilometers, with an average height of 8 meters and a width of about 10 meters, rammed with layers of earth and built with large green bricks. The north of the city is a pond with Han water, and there are three sides of the city, east, south and west, which are cut into the city, with a width of 130 meters to 250 meters and a depth of 2 to 3 meters, and the water is brimming all year round, just like a flat lake, rare in the country.

5

Xingcheng City Wall

The ancient city wall of Xingcheng City, Liaoning Province, is the Ning Yuan Wei City of the Ming Dynasty, which was changed to Ning Yuan Zhou City in the Qing Dynasty. It was built in the 3rd year of Xuande of Ming Dynasty (1428), and the outer city was added in the 5th year of Xuande (1430), with 124 steps in 9 miles around the outer city, as high as the inner city, and is one of the most complete ancient cities of Ming Dynasty existing in China. The wall is square, with a perimeter of 3,274 meters, more than 800 meters from north to south and east to west, 10 meters high, and 4.5 meters wide at the top.

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There are gates in the middle of each of the four sides of the wall, the east is called Yuan'an, the south is Yongqing, the west is Ying'en, and the north is Dading. The city gates are built with arrow towers, which are two-story pavilions. The four corners of the city walls are set up with platforms protruding from the city corners. In the southeast corner of the city built a Kui Xing building, the existing west and south of the two city gate building, between the city Guo for the moat.

6

Pingyao City Wall

The ancient city wall of Pingyao in Pingyao County, central Shanxi Province, was built in the 3rd year of Hongwu of the Ming Dynasty (1370 AD). It is 6 kilometers long, 8-10 meters high, 8-12 meters wide at the bottom and 3-6 meters wide at the top. The wall is rammed with plain earth, and the outer wall is covered with bricks and white ash. There are 6 gates around the city, with suspension bridges outside the gates, and urn cities outside the gates, with heavy eaves on the urn cities, and one corner tower around each. The wall, every 60 meters, building a view of the enemy building, the wall has a total of 72 view of the enemy building. Since there are 6 urn cities in total, forming the shape of a turtle, it is said to be a turtle city.

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The walls of Pingyao have many horse faces, beautiful shapes and complete defense facilities, which are the only ones built in China in the past generations, and are known for their ancient and clumsy construction methods. Now the north, east and south walls and the Kui Xing Building in the east and west corner of the city have been repaired and are more intact.

7

Beijing City Wall

There are still several remnants of the city walls in Beijing.

1、The wall near the Southeast Corner Tower: Located in Chongwen District, east of Chongwen Gate to Dongbin Gate, there is the most complete and longest preserved section of Beijing's inner city wall, plus an arrow tower, the Southeast Corner Tower of the Inner City.

2、The wall near the southwest corner of the city: located near the Xibianmen Bridge on the West Second Ring Road in Xicheng District, it is the first city wall site in Beijing to be listed as a municipal key cultural relic protection unit, with an "eight-eyed" arrow tower inside.

3、Deshengmen Arrow Tower: Located in the Xicheng District, north of the Deshengmen Bridge on the North Second Ring Road.

4、Zhengyang Gate Tower and Arrow Tower: Zhengyang Gate, commonly known as Qianmen, is the most complete surviving city gate in Beijing, located on the south side of Tiananmen Square.

How many of China's 33 ancient city walls have you visited?

▲Deshengmen Arrow Tower @Tuwenbosphere

In the past, Beijing's city gate consisted of three parts: the city tower, the arrow tower and the urn city, and only Zhengyang Gate kept the city tower and the arrow tower. Unfortunately, due to the construction of the Second Ring Road, most of the city walls were demolished.

8

Langzhong City Wall

Langzhong Ancient City Wall in Langzhong City, Sichuan Province, is an ancient city wall of the Ming Dynasty, located in the South City New Lane of the ancient city, 100 meters long, 5.3 meters high and 4 meters thick, a city built exactly according to the astronomical feng shui theory of the Tang Dynasty, and is known as an ancient city of feng shui. The main buildings of Langzhong Ancient City are the ancient city wall, ancient city gate, ancient pagoda, ancient cultural district, ancient trees, ancient temples and other ancient relics in 7 aspects. The surviving Song Dynasty wall in Langzhong City is only 50 meters long, with grass and trees growing on top and on both sides of the wall.

How many of China's 33 ancient city walls have you visited?

The ancient city of Langzhong was the capital of the state of Ba during the Warring States period, and now has well-preserved ancient houses, temples and pavilions from the Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, and its history and culture rank among the top five ancient cities in China.

9

Kaifeng City Wall

The Kaifeng Ancient City Wall in Kaifeng, Henan Province, is one of the largest preserved city wall structures in Henan Province. The present Kaifeng City Wall is a Qing Dynasty structure, 14 kilometers long, 11.3 meters high, 6.66 meters wide at the bottom and more than 5 meters wide at the top, wrapped with large green bricks inside and out, with neatly arranged battlements and turrets on the outside of the wall.

How many of China's 33 ancient city walls have you visited?

According to documents, the earliest city building in Kaifeng was built during the Warring States period (365 years ago), and there were 12 gates in Daliang City, of which the eastern gate was called Yi Gate, about near today's Tie Ta, and the western gate was called Gao Gate, in today's Dong Chen Zhuang in the west of the city. Before the Ming Dynasty, except for the Imperial City, which was built of brick, all other walls were built of earth, and only the city tower and the city gate were built of brick. The ancient city is surrounded by a moat 16.66 meters wide and 3.33 meters deep, and a suspension bridge was built over the moat at the entrance of the city. Five city gates were opened, the south for the South Kaoru Gate, the north for the Anyuan Gate, the west for the Daliang Gate, the northeast for the Renhe Gate, also known as Cao Gate, the southeast for the Lijing Gate, also known as the Song Gate, with a city tower on the gate and a corner tower at each of the four city corners.

10

Dali City Wall

Dali City in Yunnan, referred to as Yeyu, also known as Purple City, its history can be traced back to the Tang Dynasty in the years of Tianbao, the King of Nanzhao Ge Luo Feng built Yang Tho Ba City (near the three towers in the west of the city today), as its new capital. The present ancient city was built in the 15th year of Ming Hongwu (1382 AD), according to the literature, it is "magnificent in scale", 12 miles square, with walls 2 feet 5 feet high and 2 feet thick; there is a city gate in the east, west, north and south, with city towers, called respectively: Tonghai, Cangshan, Chengen, Anyuan; there are corner towers in the four corners of the city, which also have their own names: Yingchuan, Xiping, Kongming, Changqing. Xiping, Kongming, and Changqing. The outer wall of the city is made of bricks, with the spies on the top and the ditch on the bottom.

How many of China's 33 ancient city walls have you visited?

The city is well laid out in a chessboard shape, with five streets from south to north and eight lanes from east to west. In 1982, the South City Gate was rebuilt, and the word "Dali" at the gate was made from the calligraphy of Guo Moruo.

11

She County City Wall

The ancient city of She County in Anhui Province is made up of two walled parts, the capital city and the county seat. The capital city was built at the end of the Sui Dynasty (around 617 AD), with a slightly smaller outline at first, and was expanded to its later size in the second year of the Tang Dynasty (882). After the Fangla Uprising at the end of the Southern Song Dynasty and the Peasant War at the end of the Yuan Dynasty, the city underwent major repairs. The existing walls are about 1,500 meters, as well as the West Gate Moon City.

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The East and South Bawling Towers, Yinggong Well, Toad Well, and Duan Hoop Well are some of the former monuments of Song Dynasty. The streets of Dabei Street, Doushan Street, Zhongshan Lane and other streets basically maintain the style of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The city walls were built in the 34th year of the Ming Dynasty (155), after the Japanese invasion. The city wall was built along the ridge of the mountain, and there are still remnants of it, but the Xin'an Gate and the Qizheng Gate are intact. The ancient ruins include the ancient Ziyang Academy and the Temple of Literature. There are 16 pagodas of Ming and Qing dynasties in the city and county.

12

Chaozhou City Wall

The ancient city wall of Chaozhou in the city of Chaozhou, Guangdong, was built in the Song Dynasty, but as a low earthen city; it was rebuilt in the fifth year of the Emperor (1053), actually taking only eight months. During the Shaoding period (1228-1233) the outer city was converted to stone, and the walls of Chaozhou began to be divided into a sub-city and an outer city. From the south of Sanyang Gate, the wall extended around the west and north to Jinshan, with a total length of 951 feet, and opened four gates: "Gongying", "Huping", "Fengxiao", and "Hefu". and blessing" 4 city gate. After 6 years of Qiandao, the new East City, north from Jinshan, along the Han River embankment, and the southern end of the old city, 550 feet long, 2 feet high, all made of stone.

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There are 4 gates in the East City, and together with the original Old City, there are 11 gates in the whole city, namely: Sanyang Gate, Xiaonan Gate, Haeshui Gate, Pontoon Gate, Zhumu Gate, Shangshui Gate, Shouxue Gate, Fengxiao Gate, Huping Gate, and Gong Gate. A total of more than 4,000 battlements of saw-like short walls were constructed on the city. At present, the eight-mile-long embankment is still dotted with four towers: the Lower Water Gate Tower, the Guangji Gate Tower, the Zhumu Gate Tower, and the Upper Water Gate Tower.

13

Phoenix City Wall

The ancient city wall of Phoenix, Hunan Province, was built in Kangxi 43 (1704) of the Qing Dynasty, and now exists at the north gate wall, which was later restored. The whole wall connects the north gate tower with the east gate tower, and faces the clear Tuojiang River in front.

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The city's green stone streets, the riverside wooden hanging towers, and the buildings of Chaoyang Palace, Tianwang Temple, Dacheng Hall and Wanshou Palace all have the characteristics of the ancient city. The old city is divided into two urban areas, the old city is surrounded by mountains and water, the shallow Tuo River runs through the city, the red sandstone walls stand on the shore, and Nanhua Mountain is lined with ancient city buildings, which were built during the Qing Dynasty, with rusty iron gates. A narrow wooden bridge crosses the wide river under the north city gate, with stones as piers, two people opposite each other have to turn sideways and cross here was once the only way out of the city.

14

Tingzhou City Wall

The ancient city wall of Tingzhou, Fujian, was built in the Tang Dynasty and is about 4 kilometers long. It winds down from the top of Wolong Mountain along the two wings of Jinsha Temple and circles half of Wolong Mountain into the city, forming a unique feature of the ancient city of Tingzhou with mountains in the city and mountains in the city, just like the Buddha beads hanging around the neck of Guanyin Bodhisattva, so it has the reputation of "Guanyin hanging beads".

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In October 2003, the 186-meter ancient city wall from Ziyang Temple to Chaotian Gate, the 49-meter ancient city wall from Ziyang Temple to Yunchang Pavilion, the 67-meter ancient city wall from Yunchang Pavilion to Song Citing, and a new "Yongjin" city gate were built. So far, the newly repaired and spectacular ancient city wall of Tingzhou, from the Chaotian Gate to the Ziyang Shrine, and then along the slope and up, over the Yunchao Pavilion, down the steep mountain coiled, through the Shangguan Zhou Pavilion, straight to Song Citing, and the ancient city wall restored in 1993, along the Ting River through the Lichun Gate, all the way to the Wutong Gate, the total length of 671 meters.

15

Jianshui City Wall

The ancient city wall of Jianshui in Jianshui County, Yunnan Province, located 220 kilometers south of Kunming, was built in the Yuanhe period of Tang Dynasty (around 810) and is also known as Budian. Jianshui City was first built as an earthen city during the Nanzhao Dynasty, and was expanded into a brick city in the 22nd year of the Ming Dynasty (1389 AD). The East Gate Chaoyang Building, which has survived many wars and earthquakes, is still standing tall after nearly 600 years.

How many of China's 33 ancient city walls have you visited?

Jianshui County in the Yuan Dynasty began to build the temple school, the Ming Hongwu years built Lin'an Prefecture school, Wanli years and built the water state Confucianism. In the Qing Dynasty, four academies were established: Chongzheng, Huanwen, Chongwen and Qujiang. At that time, it was known as "half of the list", that is, the Lin'an Prefecture accounted for about half of the successful candidates in the imperial examinations in Yunnan, which was the top of Yunnan and was also rare in the country. After 12 centuries of construction, the ancient city of Jianshui has more than 50 ancient buildings, which are known as "Museum of Ancient Architecture" and "Museum of Dwellings".

16

Linhai City Wall

The ancient city wall of Linhai in Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province, is known as "Jiangnan Great Wall" and "Jiangnan Badaling". Since its inception in the Jin Dynasty, it has been more than 1,600 years, and has been continuously built and expanded by the Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, and its main part has been preserved until today.

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The ancient city wall was built along the river, and it was built along the mountain, winding and twisting, majestic and spectacular. Especially the section of Beigu Mountain, built on the top of the dangerous cliff, dancing and circling, enemy platforms, battlements, the city tower stands tall, compared with Beijing Badaling, can be called a double masterpiece, called "Jiangnan Badaling", is not overrated. What is more unique is that both sides of the ancient city wall of Linhai, ancient trees, perennial verdant, the city wall is hidden in the green bush, adding a point of spiritual beauty.

17

Shou County City Wall

Shouxian County in Anhui Province, known as Shouchun in ancient times, has been the county for 10 times since King Kauli of Chu moved his capital here in 22 years (241 B.C.), and has repeatedly been the capital of the state and county. The ancient city wall of Shouxian has a solid foundation and a majestic atmosphere, which has been well preserved so far. The present wall was rebuilt by Xu Jun, the capital of Jiankang in the 12th year of Ningzong of the Southern Song Dynasty (1206), and the words "Jiankang Xu DuTong made" are common on the brick surface of the wall. The wall is slightly square in plan, with a perimeter of 7,141 meters, a height of 8.3 meters, a width of 18-22 meters at the bottom, and a width of 4-10 meters at the top. The wall is rammed with earth, with bricks on the outside, and a 2-meter-high stone base on the lower part of the outer wall, with the whole body interjected inward and divided in layers.

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Outside the city, the southeast is a hao, about 60 meters wide, ringed by the Interwaters in the north and connected to Shouxi Lake in the west, with a stone embankment about 8 meters wide built at the foot of the outer wall. The city has four gates: the east is Bingyang, the south is Tong Inter, the west is Dinghu, and the north is Jinghuai. The four gates are guarded by urn cities, of which the outer gate of the west gate faces north, the outer gate of the north gate faces west, and the inner and outer gates of the east gate are staggered in parallel, with dual functions of military defense and flood control.

18

Kuiju City Wall

The Kui Zhou Ancient City Wall in Fengjie County, Chongqing, covers an area of 1,700 square meters, with a total length of 182 meters and a height of 7.37 meters, maintaining the historical appearance of the original "Kui Zhou Ancient City Wall". The "Kui Zhou Ancient City Wall" is the longest ancient city wall in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area ground heritage relocation project. Among them, the Yidou Gate, also known as the Great South Gate, was built in the 10th year of the Ming Dynasty (1474) and was named after Du Fu's poem, "Every time I look at the capital according to the Northern Dipper." The gate is well preserved, built of stone, 13.7 meters high, 27 meters long and 13 meters thick. It was moved to Baotaping after the Three Gorges Project. Fengjie, in ancient times, belonged to Kui Prefecture.

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Here, at the beginning, was the country of Kui Zi, one of the main settlements of the Ba people. During the Warring States period, it was under the jurisdiction of the State of Chu, and during the Qin and Han dynasties, it was changed to Yufu County. The name "Yufu County" is said to be related to Qu Yuan, a patriotic poet during the Warring States period. It was renamed Fengjie County in the 23rd year of the Tang Dynasty (649 A.D.) and was subordinate to Kui Prefecture. Since Fengjie is the seat of Kui Prefecture, people often ignore the name of Fengjie County and call it "Kui Prefecture" or "Kui Prefecture".

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19

Yuzi City Wall

The Old City of Yuzi, located at the northeastern edge of the Jinzhong Basin in Shanxi Province, is located in the southern part of the urban area of Yuzi and was built in the second year of Emperor Kaihuang of the Sui Dynasty (582). When first built as an earthen city, the city "Friday miles, three feet high, base wide four feet, wide on two feet, the pool is wide and high, half of the depth". Ming Jiajing 20 years (1541), the earthen city walls are all brick walls, and the wall base increased by one zhang, to five zhang, the wall height increased by five feet, to three zhang five feet, the city walls on the additional 20 enemy platform, corner tower 4, additional police store 16, at the same time, re-cleaned the moat, outside the moat set cover buildings.

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Yuzhi City has four doors, on which the building scullery. The east gate of the city is called Yingxi Gate, the south gate is called Guanlan Gate, the west gate is called Difen Gate, and the north gate is called Wanyue Gate.

20

Rongri City Wall

The ancient city wall of Longli in Jinping County, Guizhou Province, is a Ming Dynasty military fortress with a history of more than 600 years. The ancient city still preserves rich ancient cultural relics such as ancient city walls, ancient streets, ancient wells and ancient buildings, most of which were built in the Ming and Qing Dynasties.

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The city wall is one zhang two feet high, the city trench is one zhang deep, the city is surrounded by three miles and three minutes, east and west, north and south of the four forts, later changed to the drum tower to God, the four forts are better preserved. Longli ancient city is not large, the perimeter of the wall is about 1500 meters, in ancient times there are more than 2 meters high, this small stone circle was built in the Ming Hongwu years.

21

Qingyan City Wall

Qingyan Ancient Town in the southern suburbs of Guiyang City, Guizhou Province, about 29 kilometers from downtown. It has been more than 620 years since the Qingyan Fortress was established in the 11th year of Hongwu of Ming Dynasty (1378 AD). From 1624 to 1627, an earthen city was built on the slope of the "Four Handles", about 1 kilometer from Qingyan Fort, which was called "Wangcheng" in Chinese. "This was the prototype of the present-day Qingyan City.

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The three characters "Ding Guang Men" are written on the city gate. On the left and right sides of the gate, there are winding walls, on which enemy towers, battlements and turrets are built. All of them are built with square boulders and are green, gray and black. The ancient town had nine temples, eight temples, three palaces, three pavilions, one courtyard, one building, as well as stone pagodas, walls and other ancient architectural groups. The original earthen city, after hundreds of years of historical vicissitudes, by many times renovation and expansion, from the earthen city and gradually into the streets and alleys of the intricate stone city.

22

Qufu City Wall

The wall of the Ming Forbidden City in the hometown of Confucius in Qufu City, Shandong Province, was built between 1512 and 1522 (the first year of Ming's Jiajing reign), which is the southern wall of the Ming Forbidden City in Qufu. Qufu Ming Imperial City was built to guard the Temple of Confucius. "Moving the city to guard the temple" is also extremely rare in the history of urban architecture in the world. The wall of the old city is about 9 meters high, about 8 meters wide at the bottom, and the circumference of the city is about 4.8 kilometers long.

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Inside the old city walls is the old city of Qufu, with an area of about 1.41 square kilometers. The moat outside the city is about 3.3 meters wide and deep, and the distance between the city and the river varies from 7 to 10 meters. The old city has five gates, and all of them are built with urn cities. At the end of 1970s, most of the old city of Qufu was demolished for historical reasons, leaving only the south gate, north gate and two corners in the northwest and northeast of the city.

23

Panjiao City Wall

Panzhu City in Kashgar, Xinjiang, also known as Ban Chao Memorial Park, is located in the southeastern suburbs of Kashgar, south of Dolaiti Bagh Road, the site of a castle where the famous Eastern Han general Ban Chao was stationed for 17 years between 74 and 91 AD. With Ban Chao's castle as his base, he fought against the western slaves, supported the western region, restored the central government's rule over the western region and reopened the Silk Road.

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At present, the Panjiao City was built on the site of the original ancient city, covering an area of 14.5 acres, with the statue of Ban Chao as the center and 36 warrior statues symmetrical along the sacred path, lined with a 36-meter-long, 9-meter-high large semi-circular relief screen wall.

24

Weishan City Wall

The ancient city wall of Weishan in Weishan County, southern Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province, was built in the Yuan Dynasty and expanded in the 23rd year of Hongwu of the Ming Dynasty (1390 AD). There are four gates from east to west, north to south, and a star arch building in the center of the city, which is square in shape like a seal. The city has a chessboard street pattern. There are 25 streets and 18 lanes with interlocking streets.

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Weishan North City Building, named Gongchen Building, was built during the Ming Hongwu period. On the tall city wall, there are five old buildings with heavy eaves and hipped roofs. The south side of the city tower hangs "Kui Xiong Six Edicts" and the north side hangs "Wan Li Zhan Tian" horizontal plaque. It is majestic and powerful. The old building is 23.5 meters high and the lower tongue wall is 8.3 meters high. The building frame is supported by 28 large pillars, and the two small doors in the east and west are used to climb up the stairs. Climbing to the top of the building, look around, east, west, north, south, four streets stretching in all directions, houses like. The entire Weishan Dam is in full view, which is very spectacular.

25

Fengyang City Wall

The Imperial City of the Ming Dynasty, built in 1369 in the second year of Hongwu of the Ming Dynasty, occupies an important position in the history of ancient Chinese capital architecture, and was the blueprint for the later construction of the Forbidden City of Nanjing and the Forbidden City of Beijing. The first capital city of the Ming Dynasty was built and enjoyed the name of "Babylon of the East". The inner, second and outer walls of the capital city are 30.36 kilometers in circumference; the second wall, called the Forbidden City, is 7.67 kilometers in circumference and 2 feet in height; the inner wall, called the Forbidden City, is 3.68 kilometers in circumference. ", with a perimeter of 3.68 kilometers, nearly square, 15.15 meters high, 6.9 meters wide at the bottom of the wall and 6.4 meters wide at the top.

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▲West Gate of Mingzhongdu City Wall in Fengyang, Anhui Photo Zhang Zhigang

Zhongdu Imperial City is the innermost city, with a perimeter of 3.68 kilometers, a nearly square plan, and a scale of more than 10,000 square meters larger than the Forbidden City in Beijing. Zhongducheng (after the strike construction) has 9 gates, 28 streets, 104 square, 3 cities, 4 camps, 2 gates and 18 water gates. Its layout strictly adheres to the traditional principle of symmetry, with emphasis on the architectural layout of the palace on the central axis.

26

Gui De City Wall

The ancient city wall of Ming Gui De Province in Suiyang District, Shangqiu City, Henan Province, was built in the Tang Dynasty. Suiyang City was flooded in the 15th year of Ming Hongzhi (1502), and the following year earth was built to surround the city. In the 6th year of Zhengde (1511), the new city was rebuilt to the north of the old city, and the Yuan Dynasty wall was used as the southern wall. In the 37th year of Jiajing (1558), it was built with bricks. The south wall is 950.6 meters long, the north wall is 993.4 meters long, the east wall is 1,210 meters long, and the west wall is 1,201 meters long, with a perimeter of 4,355 meters. The height is 6 meters, the top is 6 meters wide, and the site is 9 meters wide. The south is Gong Yang Gate, an arch-coupon building with a full-length doorway of 21 meters and a platform height of 8 meters. The north is Gongchen Gate, the east is Bingyang Gate, and the west is Anthill Gate. There were originally gate towers on the doors, but they were destroyed by shelling in 1943. Now the north gate tower and the south gate tower have been restored.

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Beyond the four gates, there were originally urn cities, each with one twisted head gate, which were demolished during the Republic of China. There are 9 enemy platforms on all four sides of the wall, with different shapes and sizes. The first horse face to the south of the west gate is a semi-circular building, while the rest are in the shape of horse heads protruding from the wall. There is a corner platform at each corner of the wall, with the same shape and different sizes. There are 3600 battlements on the wall. The moat is 3.5 meters outside the wall, 500 meters wide and 25 meters narrow, with a depth of 1-5 meters, and goes around the city. The earthen dike outside the moat at 550 meters is 9 kilometers long, 20 meters wide at the base, 7 meters wide at the top and 5 meters high, built in the 19th year of Ming Dynasty (1540).

27

Luoyang City Wall

Luoyang City, Henan Province, the former city of Luoyang has two: Han and Wei former city in present-day Luoyang City, East Baima Temple east of the north bank of the Luo River; Sui and Tang former city in the Han city 18 miles west of present-day downtown Luoyang. Luoyang is one of the seven ancient capitals of China and is famous for three most. The first is the earliest capital, the second is the longest history, and the third is the most dynasties. It is said that there were 13 dynasties and more than 100 emperors who built the capital here, continuing for more than 1,600 years.

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The site of the Han Wei Luoyang City is located 15 kilometers east of Luoyang City in Henan Province, adjacent to Yanshui and Mengjin. At the beginning of the Western Zhou Dynasty, Luoyi was built and the city was constructed here, which was called Cheng Zhou. The city was called Luoyang during the Warring States period because it was located north of the Luo River. Because the place was most prosperous in the Han and Wei Dynasties, it was called the former city of Luoyang in the Han and Wei Dynasties. The existing plan is rectangular, and the southern wall was destroyed by water due to the northward movement of the Luo River. The north, east and west walls are well preserved. Some sections are about 5-7 meters above the ground. Including the northwest corner of Jim Yongcheng, the north wall is about 3,700 meters long and 25-30 meters wide; the west wall is about 4,290 meters long and 20 meters wide; the east wall is about 3,895 meters long and 14 meters wide. The circumference of the whole city is 14 kilometers. The western wall has five gates, except for the second gate from the north, which is a gate with two holes, and all of them are one gate with one hole. In the northwest corner of the city, there is the Jin Yongcheng built in the Cao Wei period, which consists of three small cities connected north and south, with the plan in the shape of an "eye", about 1,048 meters long from north to south and 255 meters wide from east to west. The three cities are connected by gateways, and the walls are about 12-13 meters wide and 6 meters high.

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The Ding Ding Gate of Luoyang City of Sui and Tang Dynasties is the main gate of the outer city of Luoyang City of Sui and Tang Dynasties, which was built in the first year of Sui Daye (605 AD) and called Jianguo Gate in Sui Dynasty, and continued to be used in Tang Dynasty and Northern Song Dynasty, and is a landmark in the central axis of Luoyang City of Sui and Tang Dynasties. Excavations show that the Ding Ding Gate site consists of a rectangular pier, three doorways, east and west corridors, east and west quays and left and right horse paths. The east-west corridor and the two east-west quays are located on both sides of the pier and are symmetrically distributed in parallel with the pier, which is a form of gate quay currently found only at the Ding Ding Gate site and has not been found elsewhere in China. In 2007, camel hoof prints were found at the Ding Ding Gate site, which is an important archaeological evidence of Luoyang as one of the starting points of the Silk Road. After more than 1,000 years, the remains of Luoyang City in Sui and Tang Dynasties are well preserved.

28

Guangfu City Wall

The ancient city wall of Guangfu, located in Handan Yongnian, surrounded by water, in the middle of the Yongnian depression, and Busan River around the city, known as "double water around the city". It is a unique ancient city, a water city, a taiji city, and a typical ancient town in the country. Guangfu was called Quliang in ancient times, and since the Western Han Dynasty, it has been the seat of county, prefecture, state and county for many generations. Before the Sui and Tang Dynasties, it was an earthen city with a perimeter of six miles and twenty-four steps.

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At the end of the Sui Dynasty and the beginning of the Tang Dynasty, Dou Jiande, the King of Xia, built his capital here. During the Yuan Dynasty, when Wang Wei was the governor of the county, the earthen city was expanded to 9 miles and 13 steps (4522 meters). In the 21st year of Jiajing of the Ming Dynasty (1542), the governor, Chen Ban, mobilized civil workers from 9 counties and spent 13 years to change the earthen city into a brick city with a height of 12 meters and a width of 8 meters, and built 1,752 battlements. In 1564, the governor Cui Dade added four urns to the city. There are many historical relics and remains inside and outside the ancient city, including the ancient city of Guangfu, Hongji Bridge, the former residence of Yang Luchan and Wu Yuxiang, Mao Sui's tomb, and the Hidden Soldier Cave, etc. There are more than 20 national, provincial and municipal level cultural relics protection units. Every step is a monument, and every place has its own style. Walking in the depths of the old city, neatly arranged green and gray houses are located on both sides of the street. Surrounding the ancient city walls is a moat about 5 km long.

29

Suzhou City Wall

The ancient city wall of Suzhou in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, dates back 2,500 years. The rammed earth walled city of more than 2,000 years ago was converted to brick as early as the Five Dynasties. Before the 1950s, Suzhou's walls were still continuous, but only after a nationwide wave of destruction, the city walls became as dilapidated as they are now.

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Today, Suzhou still has 10 gates or place names in use (clockwise from due north): Pingmen, Qimen, Loumen, Xiangmen, Turnipmen, Nanmen, Panmen, Xumen, Jinmen, and Yanmen.

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Historically, the earliest city walls of Suzhou were 8 land gates and 8 water gates. Suzhou was a big city back then and a water town. With the convenience of geography, even the moats of Suzhou were built to be that wide. Most of Suzhou's walls had two waterways, called the Inner City River and the Outer City River, which were two gullies for military defense.

30

Nanjing Imperial Palace

Nanjing Imperial Palace, also known as the Ming Imperial Palace, is the Palace of the early Ming Dynasty. By the Ming Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang was built in the 26th year (1366), the address in the northeastern suburbs outside the Yuan Jiqing, initially called "Wu Wang new palace", later called "Imperial City". Because Zhu Yuanzhang was not yet called the emperor, so the new palace building scale is limited, only the middle of the outer court and the inner court building, east and west of the open space are not built palace. The new palace is 790 meters wide from east to west, 750 meters long from north to south, there are four doors, the south for the noon gate, east for the East China Gate, west for the West China Gate, north for the Xuanwu Gate. Entering the noon gate for the Fengtian Gate, inside the main hall Fengtian Hall, the hall before the left and right for the Wen Building, Wu Building. After the Fengtian Hall for the Palace of Huagai, honored body Hall. The inner court has the Qianqing Palace and Kunning Palace, as well as the East and West six palaces.

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The Ming Imperial Palace in Nanjing is the blueprint for the Forbidden City in Beijing, the palace of the first nationally unified dynasty in Nanjing's history, on the north and south sides of present-day Zhongshan East Road. After the Ming Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang captured Jiqing (Nanjing), he changed Jiqing to Yingtianfu. Zhu Yuanzhang, in order to be the emperor, finally selected this piece of "Zhong Fu Long Pian", "the emperor's residence" feng shui treasure. According to legend, Zhu Yuanzhang requisitioned 200,000 military and civilian artisans to fill in the Yanqui Lake to "build a new city". The project started in 1366 AD and took one year to complete, which was magnificent and lofty. This Zhu Yuanzhang's palace, by the imperial city and the palace city of two parts, together called the Palace. The Imperial City outside, surrounded by the Palace City. Ming Imperial Palace now exists noon gate, East China Gate, Xi'an Gate gate que, as well as inside and outside the five dragon bridge, pillar base, inscriptions and other architectural relics.

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31

Shenyang Imperial Palace

Shenyang Imperial Palace, that is, after the Golden Palace, is located in Shenyang Shenhe District, was built in 1625 AD, is the Qing dynasty before the entry of the Qing dynasty, the Qing emperor Nurhachi, the Qing emperor Huang taiji built the palace, also known as Shengjing Palace, is after the Golden and early Qing dynasty palace, covers an area of about 60,000 square meters, all 114 buildings, more than 300 rooms. Compared with the Imperial Palace in Beijing, Shenyang Imperial Palace architectural style has a unique Manchu, Mongolian and Tibetan characteristics.

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East Road, Dazheng Hall, ten Wang Ting building group layout according to the eight banners marching tent hall (big tent times) the layout. Road is characterized by "Palace high hall low", living part is located on a high platform, overlooking the main hall area, which is derived from the Manchu people like to live on top of the station life habits. West Road and the middle of the East and West Palace is completely Han-style buildings.

32

Beijing Imperial Palace

The Forbidden City, also known as the Forbidden City, is located in the center of Beijing. The Forbidden City was the center of China's supreme power for more than five centuries and has become a priceless historical testimony of Chinese civilization in the Ming and Qing dynasties, with its landscaped gardens and vast complex of 9,999 and a half halls and palaces housing furniture and artifacts.

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The palace buildings of the Forbidden City are the largest and most complete group of ancient buildings remaining in China. Today people call it the Forbidden City, meaning the imperial palace of the past. The Forbidden City is 750 meters wide from east to west and 960 meters long from north to south, covering an area of 720,000 square meters, the largest in the world; the entire building of the Forbidden City is surrounded by two strong lines of defense in the middle, surrounded by a 52-meter-wide, 6-meter-deep moat on the periphery; followed by a wall with a perimeter of 3 kilometers, which is nearly 10 meters high and 8.62 meters wide at the bottom. There are four gates on the wall, the Wu Gate in the south, the Shen Wu Gate in the north, the East China Gate in the east and the West China Gate in the west. At the four corners of the wall, there are also four corner towers with three tiers of eaves and 72 roof ridges, which are exquisite and chic, and are masterpieces of Chinese ancient architecture.

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The Forbidden City, which housed 24 emperors and was the imperial palace of the Ming and Qing dynasties (1368-1911 AD), is now known as the National Palace Museum. The entire building of the Forbidden City is glorious and solemn, and is known as one of the top five palaces in the world (the Forbidden City in Beijing, Versailles in France, Buckingham Palace in England, the White House in the United States, and the Kremlin in Russia), and is listed as a World Cultural Heritage Site by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

33

The Great Wall

Located in the northern part of China, the Great Wall extends from Shanhai Pass in Bohai Bay, Hebei Province in the east to Jiayuguan Pass in Gansu Province in the inland region in the west. It runs through seven provinces, cities and autonomous regions, including Hebei, Beijing, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Ningxia and Gansu, and is about 6,700 kilometers long, or 13,300 miles, and is known in the world as the "Great Wall of Ten Thousand Miles".

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The Great Wall is a miracle created by the ancient working people of China. Since the Qin Dynasty, the construction of the Great Wall has been a major project. According to records, Qin Shi Huang used nearly one million laborers to build the Great Wall, accounting for 1/20 of the country's population! During the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, vassal states built beacon towers to defend themselves against invasion by other countries, and connected them with walls to form the earliest Great Wall. In the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods, the lords and states built beacon towers to defend themselves against invasion by other countries and connected them with walls, forming the first Great Wall.

There are many gates on the Great Wall of China. These places are mostly named after "Pass" and "Mouth". The Great Wall at Zhangjiakou, however, is named after a "gate", which is called "Dajingmen". In addition to the "Outer" Great Wall, the Ming Dynasty also built the "Inner" Great Wall and the "Inner Three Passes" Great Wall. The "Inner Pass" Great Wall was based on the one built by the Northern Qi Dynasty, starting from the west of Yiyuanguan at the border between Inner Mongolia and Shanxi, and moving eastward through Yanmenguan and Pingtype Pass into the north of the river, then turning northeastward through the source, Fangshan and Changping counties to Juyongguan, and then from north to east to the Four Customs at Huairou, where it met the "Outer" Great Wall. The "Outer Great Wall", with Zijingguan as its center, runs roughly north-south. The "Inner Three Passes" Great Wall runs parallel to the "Inner Side" Great Wall in many places, and in some places the two cities are only a few dozen miles apart. In addition to this, a large number of "heavy cities" were built. There are as many as 24 "Heavy Castles" around Yanmen Pass!