It is well known that the sun is the source of light and heat radiation to the earth. Based on the distance between the sun and the earth, the light from the sun needs to run for 8 minutes to reach the earth. In other words, if the sun stops emitting light, then it will take 8 minutes for humans on earth to fall into darkness.
According to astrophysicists' projections, the sun, a star will also have to go through its own life history, the day of extinction, if that day really came, how long humans can perceive it, the answer may surprise you: not 8 minutes, but may take 10,000 years.
What kind of a star is the Sun?
The Sun is the central body of the solar system, around which all the other planets revolve, and which revolves around the center of the galaxy itself. The mass of the sun accounts for more than 99.8% of the entire solar system, so it is actually still a little too forced to be described as a dreck sometimes itself.
Let's take the Earth for comparison. The Sun has about 1.3 million times the volume and 330,000 times the mass of the Earth.
The Sun is actually a very common star in the universe, and there are countless other stars in the universe, with as many as 42 million stars near the center (silver center) of the Milky Way galaxy, where the Sun is located, just by counting.
In accordance with the fact that the star will carry out its own fusion reaction, it is calculated that the mass of the star needs to be in a certain range. The largest stars are no more than 150 times the mass of the Sun, and the smallest stars are no less than 0.08 times the mass of the Sun.
The more massive the star, the more unstable it will be, because the strong radiation pressure will blow away the star's outer atmosphere; if the mass is too small, it will be difficult to cause thermonuclear reactions inside the star, and thus the conditions for star formation will not be met at all.
Stars have their own evolutionary cycles, and scientists have found that their evolutionary cycles are closely related to their own masses and vary. Accordingly, stars are classified according to their mass, as small-mass stars, intermediate-mass stars and massive stars.
The stars end up forming white dwarfs, neutron stars or black holes. Our Sun is a small-mass star that will eventually form a white dwarf.
The Sun began as a molecular cloud in the interstellar space, gradually evolved to a protostar, then gradually evolved to a main sequence pre-star, before evolving into a more stable main sequence star (this more stable period is known as the main sequence phase of the star), after which it will enter the red giant phase, where the star is already in its twilight.
As the Sun's core is depleted of helium, it will continue to collapse inward to form a hot white dwarf, and the shell will eventually form a planetary nebula.
How did the sun go out?
Our Sun is now in its main-sequence stabilization phase, which is projected to last 10 billion years based on the Sun's mass, but is currently equivalent to reaching the middle age of the main sequence, which will continue for another 5 billion years or so in the future.
The most dominant element in the body of the sun is hydrogen, followed by helium, and other trace elements such as oxygen, carbon, iron, neon, nitrogen, silicon, magnesium, and sulfur, but their cumulative percentage is less than 2%.
Therefore, the sun is considered a veritable balloon. The sun is constantly emitting light and heat externally because its interior is constantly undergoing hydrogen fusion and helium fusion.
The Sun is releasing energy during the main sequence star phase mainly by hydrogen fusion, a process that will produce more and more helium. When the hydrogen is depleted, the Sun will leave the main sequence stage and expand many times its size to become a red giant.
From here on, the Sun undergoes mainly helium-based fusion to release energy. The main
The temperature of the white dwarf is still very high, enough to support the continuation of the polymerization of the subsequent elements from the helium nucleus reaction until the formation of iron, but this stage is no longer able to release energy to the outside world. As the reaction stops and energy is no longer emitted, the sun begins its journey to extinction.
So the sun's extinction process is very long, if only by the light to judge, it may take 10,000 years for humans to find a little difference in its brightness has become dim.
What will the Earth experience if the sun goes out?
As the evolutionary process proceeds, the Sun will have a huge impact on the entire solar system. First, at the end of the main sequence phase, the Sun's interior will be warmer and brighter than it currently is, which is projected to cause the Earth's surface temperature to rise by as much as 60°C. By then, it may be that the temperature of our neighbor, Mars, will be more suitable for human survival.
In the red giant phase, the light from the sun will increase steeply to form a "helium flash", almost 2,000 times as bright as today's. If this is the case, I wonder if the Earth will be left with only daylight by then. If it really comes to that day, "blinding your titanium alloy x eyes" will be fulfilled.
In addition, because the red giant stage stars expand many times in volume, the Sun will probably swallow Mercury, Venus and our Earth whole. But some scientists speculate that because the Sun's mass is consumed by 70%, its gravitational force will also weaken, causing the Earth to survive by moving out of its orbit.
Only one part in 2.2 billion of the energy produced by the Sun radiates to reach the Earth, making it the main source of light and heat on Earth. When the sun does slowly go out, the light and heat on which the Earth depends will face a cut-off, and the evolution of life on Earth will probably rewind the origin of life in fast-forward mode.
The sun, a star it is there, following its own rhythm of life self-generation, the earth is like a chance ride, the future sun will not have any discussion with the earth towards extinction.
Although the sun will eventually usher in the day of extinction, but that will also be billions of years before it happens, for the time being, do not worry about the sun going out human how to do the problem. Maybe then humans have achieved interstellar travel, relocated to other galaxies to live it.