Science

If you were going to have a second chance at life, what would you choose?

I wonder if you have ever thought, if human beings can have a successful head transplant, does it mean, human beings can have a second life?

If you were going to have a second chance at life, what would you choose?

In 1954, the Soviet doctor Demikhov first took the head of a puppy and transplanted it into a German Shepherd, the first time a two-headed dog was created by humans. After completing the graft at that time, the shepherd could drink milk normally and yawn, but the esophageal connection became impaired and the milk leaked out of the neck when it was drunk. The two-headed dog had an immune rejection reaction, and eventually the two-headed dog survived for only 6 days.

In 1970, the first animal head replacement surgery was performed in humans. In 2001, an American doctor performed the same experiment. The head transplanted monkey woke up and was able to eat normally, and its organs were able to function normally, but it was still paralyzed because of the connection problem and survived for only a short time.

If you were going to have a second chance at life, what would you choose?

The two major problems that humans always face in this process are immune rejection and connection to the central nervous system. This problem was successfully solved back in the 1990s with the invention of drugs that could be used to suppress the immune response, but the other problem continues to plague humans. In both animals and humans, the central nervous system firmly controls the functioning of the entire body. If there is no way to successfully connect the central nervous system, the whole body will not be able to live normally and the life span of the organs will be greatly reduced.

In 2015, Italian neuroscientist Canavino claimed that he had mastered the way to connect nerves and that he would spend the next two years realizing the dream of a human head swap. A computer scientist named Donov, who was suffering from muscular dystrophy and was in very poor health, said he was willing to volunteer for the head replacement surgery, but he still put his hopes on it out of a desire to survive.

If you were going to have a second chance at life, what would you choose?

At that time, Canavino contacted a doctor in China named Ren Xiaoping and expressed the hope that the surgery could be done in China. Ren has also been engaged in research on head replacement in China, and has previously successfully completed hand transplants and head replacements for rats, but the rats were still unable to walk. Ren said that there are few ways to connect the spine, but none of them have been successfully tested on humans. Canavino used to link the brain with the spinal nerve used in the drug for polyethylene glycol, with this bottle of glue can be directly connected to the nerve, then in the end how to replace the head?

First, before the procedure can begin, it is necessary to find a donor whose gender, blood type, and other indicators are compatible with the patient. Secondly, the surgery must be performed in an environment of 12-15°C, as a cooler environment slows down the rate of cell death. Immediately afterwards, the two bodies are split in two by starting at the neck and then the patient's head is transplanted into the donor. This process must be kept for about an hour, as the brain can only barely last for about an hour with insufficient blood supply.

If you were going to have a second chance at life, what would you choose?

The fused area is then cleaned with a compound such as polyethylene glycol, a process that is expected to last several hours, and finally the suturing phase. In this process, blood vessels, muscles, etc. need to be sutured, and in order to maintain the vitality of the entire body, the sutured area needs to be stimulated with a weak electric current. The whole operation is expected to take a total of 36 hours, requiring 150 medical staff to work together, but it is a costly operation, with a cumulative cost of 70 million RMB.

Once the program was formalized, Canavino and Ren underwent their first head replacement surgery on November 20, 2017, which lasted 18 hours and culminated in the successful completion of this operation, but this time the operation was performed on two human remains instead of a living person.

Theoretically, there is a possibility of successful head replacement surgery, but there is still no guarantee that the head will survive for a longer period of time. In addition, there is still a lot of controversy about this surgery. It is important to know that the body after head transplantation is a combination of two bodies, so whose body is it going to be? If the next child is born with another human being, whose child should be counted?

In fact, if human beings one day really go to the step of changing heads, the whole society will be abnormally chaotic, because what human beings do has already violated the laws of nature, the natural order of society will also be disrupted.