The twenty-four official histories, not to say that everywhere curved pen, but definitely not the original face of history. This is also the reason why the stories in the major wild histories and tares' notes are always enjoyed by people.
It is the principle of every historian to seek truth. But the word "truth" is not easy. Thus, historical monuments, rocks and cliffs, and every corner of the world have become the evidence for historians to prove.
Because every place may be a fossil of history, recording an amazing secret. Tibet, a sacred place. The snow-capped mountains echo the blue sky, the chanting of the trumpets resonates through the clouds, and the Potala Palace stands solemnly at the top of the mountains.
Here, it is a corner that is difficult to reach by human hands and a place where various strange historical stories are buried.
Deep in the lush forest, on a cliff, a stone wall appeared in front of the archaeologists' eyes, on which was carved an amazing story of a man named Wang Xuanze, who alone destroyed a country. Is it true or not?
The wind and clouds change, stirring up the universe
The story begins at the end of the Sui Dynasty. At the end of the Sui Dynasty, the world was in chaos. Li Yuan, a nobleman of the Northern Zhou Dynasty, rose from Taiyuan and captured Chang'an. In 618 A.D., Li Yuan established the Tang Dynasty, known as Tang Gaozu. Li Yuan's second son, Li Shimin, had both virtue and talent, and was a great war hero with a heart for the world. In 626 A.D., the Xuanwumen mutiny shocked the world and Li Shimin was successfully made the crown prince.
After ascending to the throne, he started the reign of Zhenguan. During the reign of Jeonggwan, the country prospered, and many ethnic minorities in China came to pay homage to Taizong as "Heavenly Khan". Foreign countries such as Goguryeo, Silla, Baekje, Japan, Vietnam, etc. came to pay tribute. It can be said that all the four seas came together and the world was one family.
In such a peaceful and prosperous time, there are naturally many strange and interesting stories. The historical book "Zizhi Tongjian" recorded such a story, "Wang Xuanze broke a country by himself". It sounds unbelievable and many people find it suspicious. But with the archaeological discoveries, the story also gradually surfaced, the veil of history was lifted step by step, Wang Xuanze also in front of our eyes three-dimensional flesh.
But history is a calm narrator, it never has too much emotion, only iron-clad facts. We have no way to know what Wang Xuanze was feeling at that time. No matter what historical figure, once it is recorded in the history books, his story will only become a series of symbols, we have no way to know where they were and how they felt.
It is a fair trade; these historical figures have merely sacrificed their emotions, which are the most useless part of the human narrative, and traded that useless part for a place in the annals of history. The fascination of historical figures lies in their myriad life experiences, and it is only these unbelievable stories that add to their legendary nature.
In the ocean of history, the pearl of the sea will be a bright night pearl that illuminates someone's life. What was the amazing life of Wang Xuanze?
Thousands of years of stone walls, reappearing in the light of day
As we know, the early years of Emperor Tang Taizong's governance of the country can be said to be remarkable, creating the famous Ch'ingguan heyday. At that time, he was still a good emperor who tried to rule well, compared with his later years when he was incompetent and unethical, it was really one heaven and one earth. When he first came to power, he ruled the world with literature and had many outstanding achievements, such as the system of three provinces and six ministries.
The country was well governed by him, and he had good relations with ethnic minorities, such as the Tibetans. Emperor Tang Taizong married Princess Wencheng to Songtsen Gampo, and the Tibetans and Han Chinese intermarried and lived happily together. Back then, in this part of Tibet, it was not only a big event that Princess Wencheng was married off.
There are still many stories buried deep in the snowy mountains, although not as influential as Princess Wencheng, but history can never erase the traces it left behind. As early as the end of Qing Dynasty, the British had already discovered this mysterious territory in northwest China. Several times, they sent missionaries and explorers to Tibet. These British motives were not pure, and in 1904 they started a war and signed the Treaty of Lhasa.
At that time, the national crisis was so deep that the Qing government could not afford to take care of Tibet. What exactly happened there is difficult to say now. It was not until the 20th century that our country began to explore Tibet and other places. Artifacts are living stones of history, from which many unknown secrets can be discovered.
It was this period that led to the discovery of many valuable historical artifacts and added much material to the archaeological community. Among them, a stone wall came to the heart of the archaeological group and a story was presented with the writing on the wall.
The stone wall with the inscription is at the Avalokiteshvara Pass, north of Jilong County, Tibet, with the mountains to the east and west, the entrance to the mountains to the north, and the south towards Nepal. Below the location of the cliff where the stone wall is located, is a river named "Ruma Qingjiu". This stone wall is full of heart, how long has it been standing in this precarious place, and what kind of story it has recorded.
Archaeologists have been working tirelessly to photograph and examine the stone walls. After preliminary verification, the stone wall should have been carved in the Tang Dynasty, which is 1,400 years old from today, people can't help but marvel at how valuable this historical material is, which can undoubtedly provide great help for historical research. Next, deciphering the writing on the stone wall became an important task, what exactly was written on the stone wall?
After long years of wind and rain, the harsh natural environment and long time have made the stone wall blurred, most of the writing on the stone wall has faded with time, if not for this discovery of the stone wall, it will take its secrets to sleep forever in the depths of the mountains. Fortunately, the title on the stone wall is still clear enough to be legible.
At the very top of the stone wall, there are seven big words engraved, "Datang Tianzhu Envoy Out Inscription". So, archaeologists named it with this title, called "The Great Tang Tianzhu Ambassador Out Inscription" cliff stone wall. This is the value of historical materials, through the millennium of wind and rain, until it was discovered, unveiling a mysterious past. Archaeologists are crazy about it, and we ordinary people are also shocked by it.
It is certainly fortunate to be able to discover historical relics. It is the spirit of exploration and discovery that can unveil the mystery of history step by step. The reason why archaeologists, despite the danger, travel through the dense forests and snowy mountains and the tops of cliffs, afraid of missing a corner, is precisely out of respect for history and love for history.
Only in this way can we touch the pulse of Chinese civilization, perceive the heartbeat of Chinese civilization, and continuously improve our cultural soft power and enhance our cultural confidence. From cultural relics to history, this is also a common method of governance for historians. And what kind of story did our historians discover through this stone wall?
"Datang", "Tianzhu", these terms are familiar to us, who is it about? And where did it go? All these make our mind wonder, don't they? Next, let's follow the footsteps of archaeologists and solve the mystery step by step.
Stone wall writing, witness the legend
Such a stone wall full of puzzles has naturally attracted the attention of many historical scholars. Various scholars have started to study the stone wall from their own professional perspectives. One of them, a scholar named Huo Wei, was fascinated by the stone wall and began a painstaking research. Finally, with his unremitting efforts, the handwriting on the stone wall, which had been blurred, came to life once again.
People know the story of this stone wall from Huo Wei's 10,000-word-long academic paper. According to Huo Wei's years of painstaking research, he believes that the stone wall was carved during the reign of Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty. During the reign of Tang Emperor Gaozong, the year was called Xianqing. In the third year of the reign of Emperor Gaozong, the year 658 A.D., which was the beginning of the Tang Dynasty, everything was thriving and prosperous.
The country was politically peaceful, economically prosperous, and the people lived in peace and prosperity. Under such circumstances, Buddhism also developed. The country was deeply concerned about the shortage of Buddhist classics and the difficulty of transmitting Buddhist teachings. Therefore, if Buddhism wanted to develop, it had to seek Buddhist scriptures. We are all familiar with the story of Xuanzang, but what is the story recorded on this stone wall?
The stone wall is not Xuanzang, but another Tang envoy named Wang Xuanze. In the early years of the Tang Dynasty, this envoy named Wang Xuanze went to Tianzhu with his entourage, including Liu Zhizhi and He Shou. They set out from Chang'an and went through hardships just to seek Buddhist scriptures in Tianzhu. After several years of running, several people came to Jilong in Tibet.
Looking at the mountains in front of him and the stream at his feet, a few people came to be excited and carved the trip on the stone wall to record the trip. They passed through Tibet, entered Nepal, and finally reached India to complete their mission. Through this stone wall, we know that there was a man named Wang Xuanze in history.
He led a group of people across a large part of the map of China and came to India through difficulties. Yet not much is written about this man in the history books. Through the stone wall, we find out about his existence. The next step is to search for this man and his life in the vast canon.
We know that the ancient transportation is backward, unlike the current aircraft, high-speed rail. In the past, a long journey, only by their own two legs. Not only that, the road may also appear many dangers. There are not only natural disasters, but also some man-made scourges, such as bandits, thieves and pirates, etc. How could Wang Xuanze have a smooth journey on his way to Tianzhu? What will he encounter on the way?
What kind of things have written his legendary life. It is said that in India, Wang Xuanze once "destroyed a country by himself". How weak is the power of one man and how powerful is the power of a nation. It is obvious that the destruction of a country by one man is appalling, and because of such a disparate situation, this story has never been believed.
But as scholar Huo Wei's research on the stone wall deepened, a past story surfaced. People found that the story could be true! Wang Xuanze, who was once on his way to Tianzhu, used his own flesh and blood to annihilate Central India, which had shown great disrespect to the Tang Dynasty, in one fell swoop with the help of another country's military power. How did the story unfold and what did Wang Xuanze do to be able to wipe out a country with his own strength?
We have to talk about Wang Xuanze as a person first. Wang Xuanze was not an ordinary diplomatic envoy; his talents were far superior to those of a diplomat. He was born in Luoyang and was a proper son of the capital. He was a young and talented man, not only handsome in appearance, but also virtuous and talented. He worked as a county magistrate in Rongzhou, Guangxi, and later rose through the ranks to become a court official.
He is doing well as an official, so he is eager to go out and see. So, in the 17th year of Chastity, he took up the mission of going to Tianzhu. In this way, he could leave his country and go to the outside world to gain insight and show his talent. The mission to Tianzhu was not an easy task at that time, but Wang Xuanze rose to the challenge, and he made three missions to Tianzhu.
He has made outstanding contributions to the cultural exchange between China and India. However, not every mission was completed successfully, and there were always some stumbling blocks. In 647, the 21st year of Chastity, Wang Xuanze accepted the appointment and embarked on his second mission to Tianzhu.
They were full of confidence, but this time it was not destined to be a straightforward journey. They would face not only the treacherous natural environment, but also a coup d'état that they were not prepared for. When they finally arrived in Central India, risking their lives, they were not greeted with a grand welcome. The visit of the Tahs mission added to the chaos of an already chaotic India.
At that time, there was no peace within India. The king's power was almost hollowed out, and the real power was in the hands of the vizier. The vizier Araratnamshun's ambition grew and he wanted to seize the throne. So, he took the opportunity to stage a coup d'état and killed the then King of the Ring of the Day, successfully usurping the throne. All this happened when the mission arrived.
The Tang mission was not able to intervene in India's own problems, so the mission did not intervene and witnessed the whole process of this change of throne in India. The chancellor made himself king, but the vassals did not submit, so the vassals were divided and war broke out, and India fell apart. The new king did not want to have a good relationship with the Tang Dynasty, and all his actions showed disrespect to the Tang Dynasty.
Perhaps it was fear of the Tang Dynasty's power, or perhaps it was unwillingness to submit. The new king, Aronashun, not only did not treat him with courtesy, but also acted with great disrespect. Wang Xuanze's mission was ambushed on the way, and the culprit behind this was the new king of India. The king sent 2,000 men to ambush Wang Xuanze's mission.
Then, the king's executioners escorted Wang Xuanze's group to the territory of India. When they interviewed the king, only two people were left in the group, Wang Xuan Ce and his deputy, Jiang Shi Ren. Wang Xuanze was outraged by such an insult. How could he lead the mission himself, traveling with good intentions, only to be treated like this?
He felt that India's move not only insulted itself, but also damaged the face of the country. Although his body was confined, Wang Xuanze's brain was running fast. Now, the only way was to conquer them by force. But now that there were no soldiers and no swords, how could he set them to death?
Lend your troops to crusade and show your national prestige
Wang Xuan Ce and Jiang Shi Ren were imprisoned in the cell, and together they made the most detailed plan to break out of the prison first and then find the strength to launch a counterattack. The duo got acquainted with the guards of the cell and the shift change time, and finally, at a shift change, they were fully prepared to escape from the cell in one go.
After escaping from the cell, the duo headed north, sprinting as hard as they could, and finally got away from the enemy. But when they stopped, looking around, they were already in Nepalese territory. In order to escape, they just ran desperately, ignoring the changing environment around them, with only the sound of wind whistling in their ears. Of course, in addition to saving his life, Wang Xuanze heart is more hatred.
It is anger, the fury of revenge. Since Wang Xuanze has the courage to go to Tianzhu, he naturally has the determination to overcome the difficulties. His heart would definitely not only save his life, but brew a shocking plan. What should he do, in the end, to clear his shame and save the face of the heavenly dynasty?
The imagination is beautiful, but the reality is cruel. It is difficult for a clever woman to cook without rice! How on earth could he conquer India now that he was 10,000 miles away from his country, with no soldiers and no money? It is simply a fool's dream. He, Wang Xuanze, was only a diplomatic envoy, who left his country and had no backing at all, so how could he defeat India, which had natural geographical advantages, with his own strength?
Although Wang Xuanze was alone, his clever mind helped him. Since he was 10,000 miles away, he could not get the strength of the Tang Dynasty, so there was only one way, borrowing troops. That's right, borrowing troops. And from whom? And how to borrow troops? A plan was brewing in his mind.
Wang Xuanze was thinking about how to carry out his plan of borrowing troops? He looked around, where was he now? Nepal, yes, exactly in Nepal. He laughed, it was a great opportunity to find a place to go. I'd like to borrow from Nepal, and I'd like to use Nepal's hand to make a clean break.
Wang Xuanze chose Nepal not only because of its geographical location, but also because Nepal was deeply benefited by China. During the Tang Dynasty, much attention was paid to foreign relations. When Princess Wencheng went to Tubo to make peace, Nepal was one of the necessary routes. Since Princess Wencheng's marriage, the Tang Dynasty and Tubo began to have friendly relations and lived a honeymoon.
This puts Nepal between the two in a very awkward situation, their own strength is weaker than the two countries, both sides can not be offended, so only submissive, with their tails between their legs. Wang Xuanze saw this point, Nepal is the best candidate to borrow troops. Although Tubo is powerful and has a better relationship with China.
But this loan is not the emperor's holy decree, Wang Xuanze can not rely on Tufan to avoid unnecessary trouble in the future. Wang Xuanze was waiting for a suitable time. Just in time, this time appeared. At that time, not only Princess Wencheng, Nepal also married its own princess to Songtsen Gampo, which was not just right. Wang Xuanze, as an emissary of the Tang Dynasty, borrowed troops from Nepal in the name of Songtsen Gampo.
As soon as Nepal saw this double identity, he did not dare to doubt it at all and was pleased with his position. Without the slightest hesitation, he decisively lent 7000 cavalry to Wang Xuanze. Wang Xuanze suddenly changed from a man, into a general. 7000 cavalry, at his disposal. Thus, he had the strength and the sharp edge, and the plan in his mind was being realized step by step.
But he still had to make all the preparations, so he went to Tubo again and asked Songtsen Gampo for 1200 people. Not only that, he also contacted the nearby vassal states of the Tang Dynasty and tried to level India in one go. Wang Xuanze's massive recruitment of troops and horses naturally shocked the Indian side.
But King Aronasun was not anxious, he appeased his ministers very unhurriedly and said confidently, "Wang Xuanze is only a few thousand men, how can he compete with my Indian elephant soldiers. Aronasun's confidence was due to the elephant soldiers. The so-called elephant soldiers were the troops who rode on elephants to fight. As we know, India has always regarded elephants as auspicious objects. Elephants are large in size and are a great weapon in combat.
As a result, the Indians trained elephants early on to become war elephants. The power of elephant soldiers can be imagined. With a single kick, an elephant was able to make three or four people perish and become a puddle of mush. Because of this, Aronasun was confident that Wang Xuanze could not stand up to him. He had already laid a net in the north, waiting for Wang Xuanze.
But Aronasun, the new emperor who usurped the throne, underestimated Wang Xuanze. Wang Xuanze had anticipated his plan and knew the power of the elephant soldiers. So, he thought of a response early. Against the elephant soldiers, the most important thing is to subdue the elephants. The world is one thing over another, Wang Xuanze used the fire bull formation to make the elephant soldiers confuse themselves. Then, Wang Xuanze led his troops to sprint all the way.
Aronashun closed the city and fled. Wang Xuanze pursued him and fought until he reached Central India and captured Aronashun alive. Wang Xuanze's army did not want to stop, and East India was just around the corner. This frightened the East Indian king, Corpus Christi, who hastened to show his goodwill and sent numerous gifts to the Tang Dynasty for self-preservation.
When Wang Xuanze returned to his dynasty and passed through Tibet, he carved what he had done on the stone wall, which formed the inscription of the Tang Dynasty, and this is the whole story behind the stone wall.
We can't help but sigh that the great China is glorious everywhere.