"Touli stationery box a, inside the hidden cutter, awl, ear digging, picking teeth, messages, and manicure knife, file, hair pare and other pieces. Wine plate a, poetry rhyme plate a, text poetry tube a: hidden within the red leaf or paper to record poems. Under the hidden comb box, so as to mountain accommodation. Outside with the lock to open and close. Take the mountain tour, it seems to be very well prepared."
Gao Lian of the Ming Dynasty listed the supplies prepared for night stays on mountain trips in his Zunsheng Bajian. What is "news"? The news was originally for ear-tucking, "to bird hair plume on the head of the bamboo needle, used to take the ear dirt, the common call for news". Ming Dynasty scholar travel, the use of exquisite can be seen.
Most of the scholars in the late Ming Dynasty boasted themselves as "travel addicts". Zhang Dai said "people without fetishes can not be friends, because they do not have deep feelings", Wang Yangming poem "life landscape has become a fetish". Yuan Hongdao "West Lake Travelogue", Wang Shizhen "Pan Taihu Lake Tour Dongting two mountains", Zhang Dai "Lake Pavilion to see the snow" such travelogues of small works, and "Xu Xiake travelogue", "wide Zhi Est" such as the magnificent dedication, are visible proof of the prosperity of people travel.
The "fetish" of the scholars in the Ming Dynasty, especially in the "making of things". They no longer denigrate the craftsmen, but physically injected "elegance" into the common utensils.
Shen Shuang offended the powerful minister Yan Song, in prison for 18 years, to ponder the play of literature for fun. "side study of the art of craftsmanship, no axes and saws, with a piece of iron grinding day and night, so ﬁne. Got fragrant nan feet, cut for stationery a, big box three, small box seven, wall lock two; brown bamboo several pieces, for a (shà, fan) a, for bone eighteen, to shoot, to sew, to key, firm and dense meat good, ingenious craftsman Xie can not work".
Legend has it that the immortals of Plum Lake used plums as rafts, and Huang Ruheng of Qiantang built a boat with bamboo, called "floating plum threshold", and invited famous scholars to inscribe and compile into a collection, such as Tang Xianzu's sentence "Huang Lang new pan bamboo for the compilation". After that, his daughter-in-law Gu Ruopu specially built the "reading boat" and taught his son Huang Can to read therein, and after Huang Can became an adult, he built the "breaking wave" and called himself "breaking wave boat son", and the poetry of the Huang family has been passed down for generations.
Not to mention the Ming Dynasty also came out of the Ming Emperor Hizong such a strange woodworking emperor. Ming Palace miscellaneous chanting" has a poem: "the imperial system ten lamps screen, Sinong does not suffer from poverty. Shen Xiang carved cold bird, the price of 100,000 coins." The emperor's craft, who does not like?
Recently, because of the epidemic, outdoor camping has become a tourist hotspot, with some netizens interestingly commenting that the entire circle of friends are camping during this year's May Day holiday. How to make camping pull full of "atmosphere sense"? Ming Dynasty people have developed a lot of outdoor life black technology.
(Ming) Shen Zhou's "Reclining Journey" album
Ming Dynasty trips are grouped
In the Analects of Confucius, it is written that Confucius went on an excursion, "In spring, when the spring clothes were ready, five or six people were crowned, six or seven children, bathed in Yi, danced in the wind, and chanted and returned." This is the size of the group.
Song dynasty Shen Kuo in the "forgetfulness of the record" recommended: "mountain visitors can not be more, more then should receive personnel laborious, there is a hindrance to quiet appreciation." But it is best to bring three servants, "so that three people with all the applications, a total of two fans, two people load, manipulate a few staff to hold, cover the miscellaneous make more than three people is sufficient. Ming people travel, such as Wang Shizhen's "Zhang Gong Cave Records", Yuan Hongdao's "Tour of Mount Pan" and other descriptions, generally no more than six people, should be considered a group tour. To play as comfortable as possible to get pleasure, willing to pick the burden can not be less.
"Journey to the West" in the Tang monk to get the scriptures, the master and disciple four people, pig and Sha and monk count two pickers. Pig Bajie always complained about the heavy burden, what did the Tang monk's burden carry? The book explains that the westbound burden "four pieces of yellow rattan gabions, the length of eight ropes. And to prevent the rain, felt wrapped three or four layers. The stretcher is also worried about slippery, both ends nailed on the nail. Brass and iron hit nine rings of staff, gabions and rattan wrapped around the big cloak." The most afraid of moving books, the Tang monk has the habit of reading at night, and the stretcher is loaded with scriptures and the four treasures of literature.
Xu Xiaque described himself as "an old man in cloth with two sandals, poor in the river and sand, up to Kunlun, through the western region, and titled the country of extinction", saying so, but he was not "a lonely man with two sandals". Xu Xiaque hired many errand boys along the way, sometimes four, at most six. Xu Xiaque's luggage was so heavy that one stretcher was not enough, so he had to use a "two-shoulder carriage". In his diary, Xu Xiaque always wrote that he had to "change the husband" at a certain place, and at most, he wrote "change the husband" four times a day. In addition, he also carried with him the family heirloom "clear mountain post" six books, all the way with friends to enjoy. Xu Xiaque's demand for stretcher is actually similar to that of the Tang monk.
Monk Tang is a monk and travels with a Zen staff. Xu Xiaque's "lonely species" refers to the bamboo staff. "The bamboo staff is lighter than a horse, who is afraid? A straw rain and smoke can be used to live a peaceful life." Su Shi's poem defines the dash of forgetting the mountains and waters in the future generations.
Ming people out what to dress? They wore wild clothes. According to Zhang ugly "wild clothes test", a set of wild clothes including moss hats and velvet handkerchiefs, deer fur with rope, grass tracks, grass clothes, short brown, bucket hats, raincoats, spandex, mango shoes, bamboo canes, firewood, Lei hoe, etc.. Think of them as "Zhuge village men".
The eighth chapter of "The History of Confucius", the two sons of the Lou family went to see the Superintendent of Dianthus at the time of Jiajing, "the Superintendent also changed the Ge Scarf wild clothes crutching the Tiantai rattan staff out to sit with." The spirit of the literati switched between up and hidden, a change of clothes with a stick can be achieved, this is the correct solution to "pretend".
When Lu You got an old vine staff, he wrote a poem, "I have an ancient vine staff, the shape of a dragon", like the song "My skateboard shoes, fashionable and fashionable" by Pang Malang? But the red vine staff of Tiantai is what Lu You has in mind: "Tomorrow I want to go to Tiantai, try to beg a high man." When Xu Xiaque traveled to Tiantai Mountain, he also took the trouble to look for ten thousand years of vine on Tiantai Mountain. When he couldn't find the vine, he had to use a "lonely species".
Wu Jingzi wants a rattan bamboo warfare, "a staff needs dozens of gold", such as buying "time or to the end of food".
There is something inside the carrying case
It is said in "Guangzhi Esthesis" that Beijing people in Ming Dynasty were good at traveling, and when they went to the Qingming Festival, "the high beam bridge pan box was like a picture picture". Qing dynasty "Yanjing years and times record" also said: "Ming time accumulation of water pool, often good people United more than ten beds, with all basket wine equipment, store rug rattan its on, boom drink ice in the thought of fun."
Plate box are basket one thing, is a must for Ming people to travel the gods. "All basket" was first seen in the Tang Dynasty Lu Yu "tea scriptures", is mainly loaded with tea utensils, "to fully set all the vessels and the name". By the Ming Dynasty, the development of the box for the mention, a substantial expansion.
Gao Lian had made his own "mention box", which can be described as high quality. Gao Lian's box was divided into two layers, "like a small kitchen", "far away from the appropriate to carry, very light, enough for the needs of six guests". The lower layer is a small bin, which can be "filled with six wine glasses, a wine jug, six chopsticks, two persuasive cups", and the upper layer is divided into six compartments, "with four compartments, each containing six plates, placing fruit and food for the wine goblets. Two more compartments, each containing four plates, set salmon dishes for food and chopsticks". In addition, and home-made "stove", similar to the style of the box, you can boil tea, warm wine and porridge. With a pair of stretcher carrying the box and stove, you can go.
Qiantang people Xu Jishu wrote "tea sparse", which has a "tour of the mountain with": "prepare all the apparatus, fine tea famous incense, peer different room, a tea poppy, note two, a choshi, four small ou, a wash, a copper stove, a small surface wash, by the vice. With the trousseau small stove incense bag seven chopsticks as a rich shoulder, thin urn storage water thirty pounds, for half a shoulder is sufficient." Not only loaded tea sets, but also can be loaded with wine sets, incense sets, accommodating more diverse.
In the National Palace Museum, there is a Qianlong imperial travel stationery case, made of rosewood, which can be folded, unfolded as a table and closed as a box. It can be placed 64 sets of small and fine literary treasures and miscellaneous instruments, including the palace painter Zhou Kun's colorful landscape painting small hand scrolls and landscape small booklet and the "Class Court Liyu" up and down two books. The folding table appeared in the Ming Dynasty. Gao Lian "Zunsheng Bajian" said that it is recommended to carry two folding tables when traveling outside. A large table for the dining table, "for the two sides of the folding feet live method, exhibition is into the table, folded into the box, in order to carry. Seats with this lift together for entertainment." Another small table for the table. "Water-rubbed nan wood for it, placed outside the seat, burning incense, set the vase with flowers, for clear appreciation."
When it comes to folding furniture, it is impossible not to mention the Hu bed. Hu bed is not a bed. The backrest is called a cross chair, no backrest is called a cross beast, but also can be called a horse. Hu bed has two major historical contributions. One is to change the sitting habits of the ancients, from sitting on the floor, changed to sit with the feet down, the Tang people called "free seat". The second is "convergence of the can hold, put the can sit" ("Zizhi Tongjian"), to ancient furniture to bring the design of folding ideas.
Qianlong Imperial Travel Stationery Case, The Palace Museum Collection
A revolutionary chair
The Hu bed was introduced in the Eastern Han Dynasty and was liked by Emperor Lingdi of Han. In the Sui dynasty, Yang Jian was afraid of the word "Hu", so the Hu bed was renamed as Jiaobian. The "bed" in Li Bai's phrase "the light of the bright moon in front of the bed" is said to be a Hu bed.
The Qingming Shanghe Tu on the cross chair, simple structure, the chair sitting with cross feet, and a horizontal backrest. Chengzhai poetry" told a joke of Su Shi. Su Shi over Runzhou, the governor of the high will be a banquet to invite him. During the banquet, the courtesan sang the phrase "only a cup of spring grass, to solve the good guest", and Su Shi took the next line "but left me to eat grass". "The courtesans stood behind Dongpo, and those who were on Dongpo's bed laughed and fell down, so the bed was broken and Dongpo fell to the ground, and the guests laughed and dispersed". Or this farce, such as in the "Golden Lotus" in the back of this kind of Hu bed is called "Dongpo chair".
The famous "taishi chair" is also a cross-chair. It is said in the "Gui Er Ji" that the "Tai Shi Chair" was named because Qin Hui sat on it. Another said that it came from Wen Zhengming's "Wen taishi chair". This chair was later given to Wen Zhengming's great-grandson Wen Zhen Meng. Chongzhen emperor when Wen Zhen Meng into the cabinet to worship the prime minister, respected as a tai shi, the chair used called tai shi chair. The "Golden Vase Plum" already has the saying of the Tai Shi Chair. Wen Zhen Meng's younger brother Wen Zhenheng in the "long things" said: "(bed) to carry the mountain tour, or boat with the most convenient." If you take "Tai Shi" to travel, this "Tai Shi" can not be Qin Xi.
The most revolutionary idea is that the cross chair was transformed into a flying chair by the Ming people. Wu County, "Wu Zhi", the late Ming and early Qing dynasties, Xu Zhengming made a human-powered flying car, its appearance, such as a tai shi chair, "under the organ, teeth staggered. People sitting on the chair, with two feet to hit the board up and down the machine, the wind whirled and sped away", "more than a foot from the ground, flying across the harbor and branch not by the bridge". This invention should be ranked as the first chair of the Ming Dynasty artifact inventions, which really put into practice Mr. Dongpo "I want to return home by the wind" of the imagination.
Li Yu designed the cool stool in the Qing Dynasty. The cool stool face has a square box, covered with square tiles, "first draw cool water to store the stool, covered with a tile, make sure that the water below, its cold as ice, hot to change the water, water stop several scoops, for the force is not much". The "cold stool" is mentioned in "The Golden Lotus", under the grapevine of Ximen Qing's house, so I wonder if Li Yu was inspired by this?
Kanetsuan is a paper tent
The tent has been there since ancient times, "Mozi" contains "curtain curtain, the three armies with". The ancients generally sleep in boats, travel or ancient temples, camping is often called "wild sleep", wild sleep is mostly a last resort. "Everywhere floating home into a wilderness sleep, when the cebu for mountain travel", Lu You's open-mindedness is rare.
Was there a civilian camping tent in ancient times? An example can be found in the "old story of Wulin", Song Xiaozong accompanied the emperor Song Gaozong to Qiantang to watch the tide, temporarily set up fifty tide houses, the people follow suit, "the noble residence of the people, the colorful curtain where more than 20 miles, carriages and horses, almost no way. Xixing area, also are grasping the fettered curtain times, colorful embroidery shining river, there is like paving brocade."
Gao Lianzai "Guanxuean" building method, is a paper tent. "Nine feet long, eight feet wide, seven feet high, with light wood for the grid, paper and cloth paste, to block three sides. The upper part of the tent is covered with a frame, and a curtain is applied in front of it, which is rolled and stretched like a tent. In the four can sit, may be set fire tableware, move around, the back wind tent of the, to the snow look out, than the felt tent, seems to be more relaxed. Shi's on the flowers, on the landscape, the elegant victory of the place, there is no inevitable, called the line nest." The phrase "Snow Watching" is not original to Gao Lian, but first came from the hand of Shen Kuo. In the Qing dynasty, Li Yu in "Leisurely Love" has "on the flower residence", is also a paper tent, the name may come from Gao Lian that "Shi Zhi on the flower".
According to scholar Meng Hui, the design of Guanxuean came from the paper pavilions of the Tang and Song dynasties. The paper pavilion was placed indoors to keep warm in winter, and one of the best things about it was that incense was burned in it, and the fragrance would not dissipate for a long time. The Zunsheng Bajian has a paper tent with plum blossoms: "The top is made of a roof, covered with a tent of white kozo, in front of which a bed is placed, and a small incense table is set up on the left, with an incense censer burning wisteria incense."
As for the Hsing Wo, the allusion is to Shao Yong, a scholar of the Northern Song Dynasty, whose living room was named An Le Wo. Shao Yong was a good traveler, so his friends built a house to receive Shao Yong, which was called "Xingwo". After the death of Shao Yong, there is an elegiac poem "spring wind and autumn moon playful place, cold down line nest twelve". Nowadays, B&Bs around the world, because of the camping fever and tents to solicit customers, very similar to the idea of Xingwo.
The "Campsite Fishermen's Tale" contains that when Su Shi was the governor of Ruyin, he "made a pavilion of choice, with a curtain for it, which is not found in the world". Su Shi has in mind the Zesheng Pavilion's construction method: "is made the pavilion, the eaves pillar Luan beam, chiseled pegs, set up, combined with the dispersion of the usual, red oil up to bear, the green tent four, I want to go, ten can be general, and water lift, in addition to the ground cloth bed." The Song Dynasty "Yunji seven tags" has recorded Wuyi immortal legend, Wuyi Mountain immortal "Wuyi Jun" annual banquet, "set the mantle pavilion, rainbow bridge through the mountain", so Wuyi Mountain is also known as "mantle pavilion". The design of the Zesheng Pavilion and the legend of the Mantle Pavilion is similar.
The changing times behind the luxury
Zhang Dai in "Taoan Meng Yi" wrote "Huqiu mid-autumn night", 10,000 people chorus "Chenghu Wanha", you can imagine the camping scene in the late Ming Dynasty: "the sky all night on the moon, drums and blowing hundreds of places, big blowing, ten cymbals, fishing and Yang doping Laos, moving the ground and turning the sky, thunder booms, calls can not be heard. The earth is moved and the sky is turned over, the thunder boils, calls are not heard. More set, drums and cymbals gradually rest, silk pipe flourishing, mixed with singing, are 'Jinfan open, Chenghu Wanha' with the field of the big song, squatting and gong silk bamboo meat sound, do not identify the beat brake."
The reason for the late Ming style of "indulgence in sex" and "materialistic desire" is that.
First, the development of the commodity economy. After the middle of the Ming Dynasty, the society gradually to the luxury for the fashion, cheap business tradition is obscured. Especially in the Jiangnan area, "the custom is not Confucianism is Jia, the generation if the trampling more". The aesthetics of the literati became refined, as Wang Qi said in his "Miscellaneous Notes on the Garden of the Abode", "human nature is more ingenious and the products are more". The contemporary historian Bu Zhengmin, in his book The Confusion of Indulgence, argues that "when everyone began to chase what should have belonged to the gentry, these gentry tried to maintain their privileged position of superiority over those who came after them by constantly modifying the rules of aesthetics."
The second is the political decay of the late Ming. In the Wanli period, Gu Yuncheng began to use "the sky is crumbling and the earth is chaps" to describe. The road to the temple was getting narrower and narrower, so the scholars explored the spiritual space in the landscape. Ming Fan Lian lamented that "the customs since the simple and tends to thin, as if the river is going down and can not return." Of course, there is also Qian Qian Yi, after the fall of the country, still reminiscent of the "world's physical strength, customs and beauty".
The third is the Western learning in the late Ming Dynasty. Western missionaries came to China and opened the vision of Ming scholars. Xu Guangqi and Matteo Ricci compiled the original geometry, and Wang Zheng and the Swiss missionary Deng Yuxuan compiled the "Far-West strange weapon diagram". The inherent thinking of the scholarly class, which valued Taoism over tools, began to change, and the trend of practical thinking rose.
Song people had to tea ware to add official rank, tube tea broom called "Zong engaged", tea mill called "stone transit". The Ming people called the bamboo tea stove "bitter section like", and all the basket respect for "bitter section of the gentleman line province". The "bitter section" refers to bamboo, "province" refers to the travel tool. As the country was in hardship, the scholar pursued materialistic desires, not only for the relief of his mind, but also for the self-conditions of his temperament. It is only that some people are trapped in things, while others are beyond things. (Responsible Editor: Shen Feng)