Science

To make money, against his conscience! He used scientific authority to scourge the world twice

"Scientists and engineers carry a particularly heavy moral responsibility."

This was said by Albert Einstein.

Because the power of science is so great that in the hands of different people, it ends quite differently!

We're face to face with the man who sold the world.

To make money, against his conscience! He used scientific authority to scourge the world twice

Science itself can't choose between interest and conscience, but scientists can.

Thomas Midgley (Jr.), an American mechanical engineer and chemist, was definitely "brilliant" in the field of science.

Midgley began studying chemistry on his own at the age of 25 while working on a gasoline additive.

It took six years and thousands of compounds to test, but in 1921 he finally synthesized tetraethyl lead, a killer compound of great commercial interest.

To make money, against his conscience! He used scientific authority to scourge the world twice

In the early 20th century, the fledgling automobile industry, was in big trouble.

Because of its low resistance to detonation, gasoline would burst during combustion, which not only reduced output power, but in severe cases damaged the engine.

If this problem cannot be solved, then the car can neither run fast nor run far, just like the early Tesla electric car, which can only be reduced to a fashionable toy for the rich.

And the tetraethyl lead, invented by Mickey Li, solved this problem perfectly.

To make money, against his conscience! He used scientific authority to scourge the world twice

Tetraethyl lead mixed with gasoline, greatly improved the gasoline anti-explosion, so that gasoline can be in the engine, to withstand greater compression ratio, more stable combustion, more power, greatly contributed to the development of the automotive industry.

In other words, the tetraethyl lead invented by Mikili could make the car engine of that time soar in place, from bronze directly to ace.

This new invention, naturally, was highly welcomed by automobile manufacturers and petrochemical companies, and, of course, was more likely to create huge wealth.

But, faced with profit and conscience, Thomas Mikely Jr. chose the former, and he concealed the fact that tetraethyl lead was a potent nerve poison.

To make money, against his conscience! He used scientific authority to scourge the world twice

Tetraethyl lead is easy to synthesize and inexpensive, making it economical.

But the elemental lead in it, which is extremely easy to invade the human nerve center, can affect the human nervous, cardiovascular, skeletal, reproductive and other systems, so to speak, is harmful to the human body.

In fact, during the testing and development process, Mikili had already discovered this, and, his staff had a precedent of death by poisoning when producing tetraethyl lead.

But tetraethyl lead harbors too much interest, and Mickey eventually brought the invention to market, and in order to eliminate everyone's doubts, he did something even more unconscionable-

Both to customers and in the product manual, all uniform caliber, only say "The market has proven that Mickey's products are not only good for the environment.

To make money, against his conscience! He used scientific authority to scourge the world twice

The market proved Mikkeli's "genius", and tetraethyl lead became standard in engines immediately after its introduction, as indispensable as gasoline.

As coverage and use grew, so did the lead pollution from tetraethyl lead, which was becoming more and more serious and horrific.

The New York Times wrote on its front page, "Patients acted violently, they screamed hysterically, they jumped up from their beds and smashed everything, they went crazy ...... Some patients even reached a temperature of 43°C before they died... ..."

And at this point, Mikili, once again a deserter, did not take on the "moral responsibility of a scientist," but used his authority in the field to keep the situation down.

To make money, against his conscience! He used scientific authority to scourge the world twice

On October 30, 1924, Thomas Mickey Jr. held a huge press conference, with invitations sent to almost every newspaper in the United States and Europe.

At the conference, in front of the reporters, Micheli first poured tetraethyl lead on his hands to show that the exposure was harmless;

Next, he opened a bottle containing a solution of tetraethyl lead and went up to smell it for almost a minute, thus showing that it was equally safe to inhale.

Eventually, this detail was repeatedly reported in the media as proof of the safety of tetraethyl lead, putting the public's doubts to rest, although what the media failed to mention was that just a few days after the launch, Mikely developed severe symptoms of lead poisoning and had to take a medical leave of absence for nearly a year.

To make money, against his conscience! He used scientific authority to scourge the world twice

The huge commercial interests in the front and the strong endorsement of scientific authorities in the back have made people ignore the harmfulness of tetraethyl lead and face lead poisoning with an unsuspecting mind. That feeling is really like the "coexistence theory" advocated by European and American countries today, to lie flat to deal with the epidemic.

But ignoring a hazard doesn't mean it doesn't exist.

Tetraethyl lead is used in large quantities, allowing thousands of tons of lead to be released into the atmosphere as vehicle exhaust.

Before then, very little elemental lead could be monitored on the surface, and since then, lead has been widely distributed in the earth's ecological cycle,

costing not only the health and lives of countless people, but also the earth at a cost that is expensive and irreversible.

It was not until the late 1980s that the world gradually banned tetraethyl lead and other leaded gasoline.

The auto industry and the energy industry, in this sense, also carry the original sin of disregarding the well-being of all mankind for commercial gain.

To make money, against his conscience! He used scientific authority to scourge the world twice

For Mickey Li, it is a great credit to promote the development of the automobile industry, and at the same time, he is also a thousand sinners who, by his own power, poisoned the earth, however, his story is not yet over.

It has to be said that Mikili is really a genuine genius, he held more than a hundred inventions in his life.

In particular, after inventing tetraethyl lead, he invented a new refrigerant whose chemical name was dichlorodifluoromethane, better known by its commercial name - Freon.

As before, no matter industrial refrigeration or domestic refrigerator, generally use sulfur dioxide and other toxic gases as refrigerant.

Industrial production is okay, if the home refrigerator once the refrigerant leak, the result is only one, the whole family whole to go to God.

To make money, against his conscience! He used scientific authority to scourge the world twice

Obviously, this time, Mickey Lee learned the lesson of tetraethyl lead, he invented the Freon is neither flammable, but also harmless to humans, is really, really, really harmless to humans, so he was also in 1937, was awarded the Perkin Medal.

But fate is so strange, Freon is harmless on the ground, does not mean that it is also safe at high altitude, Mikely ignored the gas fugitive effect.

Freon fugitive during operation, and when it rises to the stratosphere, it strikes an extinct blow to the ozone layer, with an average of one Freon molecule destroying as many as 100,000 ozone molecules.

However, as the market once again validated Mikkeli's "genius," the ozone layer was decimated as Freon spread its use around the world, culminating in a huge ozone hole over the Antarctic.

To make money, against his conscience! He used scientific authority to scourge the world twice

The ozone layer is the "umbrella" of the earth's ecology and the barrier of the earth's ecosystem. Once destroyed, the cosmic ultraviolet rays will drive straight in and irradiate the surface of the earth, leading to the incidence of skin cancer on the one hand, and the greenhouse effect on the other, raising the earth's temperature. There is no doubt that the invention of Mikili, once again, a double blow to mankind, to the Earth.

For this reason, the United Nations Environment Programme has, since 1976, adopted a series of agreements one after another to protect the ozone layer, and at the same time, strictly restrict the production and application of Freon and render harmless the existing products.

To make money, against his conscience! He used scientific authority to scourge the world twice

The two most important inventions in the life of Thomas Mikkeli Jr. have gone the same way, both becoming "contraband" in the history of science. "The most killed individual in history".

In all fairness, from a purely scientific point of view, Thomas Mikely Jr. was genius enough to bring out the great power of science, but he did his best to demonstrate the complexity of human nature as a scientist.

tetraethyl lead, he abandoned his conscience because of his interests, the higher his position and the heavier his authority, the greater the harm;

Freon, it really cannot be taken as his inadvertent fault because, Mikili did not take responsibility to verify the subsequent reaction of the gas.

To make money, against his conscience! He used scientific authority to scourge the world twice

Abandonment of conscience and irresponsibility, both of which are concentrated on Mickeyrie, precisely disprove the words of Einstein quoted in the opening paragraph, "Scientists and engineers bear a particularly heavy moral responsibility."

This heavy inside, there is no room for selfishness and self-interest, light talk, no room for the clouds, Netflix hype, and even less room for the blind exploration of exquisite egoists.

As for Thomas Mikely Jr, he also suffered the backlash of fate.

To make money, against his conscience! He used scientific authority to scourge the world twice

Everyone is equal before poisoning.

Exposure to tetraethyl lead, an element of lead, severely damaged his health, causing Mikili to be bedridden for a long time at the age of 51.

Faced with all the inconveniences of life, he decided to invent a whole set of mechanical systems again to assist him to get up and turn over in bed.

During the experiment, Mickey was accidentally tangled in the traction rope around his neck, which led to his death by asphyxiation, and his life ended on November 2, 1944, at the age of 55.

And the mechanical system that killed him, a creation that would have been very suitable for the sick as well as the elderly, was ultimately left unfinished forever ......