Today in History - September 23rd

History of September 23rd

Main events.

1: September 23, 1831 - Faraday invents the dynamo

2: September 23, 1846 - Neptune is observed for the first time by Galle

3: September 23, 1913 - First human flight over the Mediterranean

4: September 23, 1949 - Soviet Union develops the atomic bomb

5: September 23, 1969 - China successfully conducts its first underground nuclear test


September 23, 1831 - Faraday invents the dynamo

On this day, September 23, 1831 (August 18, 1831 in the lunar calendar), 191 years ago, Faraday invented the dynamo.

The British scientist Faraday discovered the principle of electromagnetic induction in 1831. This principle, which has played an important role in the development of human society, says: "When the magnetic lines of force of a magnetic field change, an electric current is induced in the wires around it."

Faraday had painstakingly, through research and repeated experiments, finally discovered this influential scientific principle, and he was sure that the use of this principle can certainly create a generator that can actually generate electricity.

A generator is a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. It converts the energy contained in various primary energy sources into mechanical energy through the prime mover, and then converts it into electrical energy through the generator and sends it to various power-using occasions through the transmission and distribution network.

Due to the different forms of primary energy, different generators can be made.

The use of water resources and hydraulic turbine with, can be made into hydroelectric generators; due to the reservoir capacity and different head drop height, can be made into different capacity and speed of hydroelectric generators.

Using coal, oil and other resources, and boilers, gas turbines with, can be made into turbine generators, this generator is mostly high-speed motor (3000rpm).

In addition, there are various types of generators that utilize energy from wind, atomic energy, geothermal, etc.

In addition, due to the different operating principles of generators are divided into DC generators, asynchronous generators and synchronous generators. At present, all large generators in widespread use are synchronous generators.

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September 23, 1846 - Neptune is observed for the first time by Galle

On this day, 176 years ago, September 23, 1846 (August 4, 1846 in the lunar calendar), the German astronomer Galle observed Neptune for the first time.

By the 18th century, Copernicus' theory of the solar system was widely accepted, and the first planet beyond Saturn was discovered, Uranus.

In 1821, the Frenchman Bouvard discovered that the theoretical calculated position of Uranus' motion orbit was quite inconsistent with the observations, and that Uranus was always pulled to the outer side of the theoretical calculated position. It was then predicted that there was an unknown planet beyond Uranus, and that it was the gravitational force between it and Uranus that pulled Uranus outward. The British Adams and the French Chinvillers each completed their calculations on the unknown planet almost simultaneously and independently.

On September 23, 1846, Galer of the German Observatory in Berlin discovered an eighth-magnitude star that was not on the chart, about 5° east of 8 Capricorn, i.e., less than 1° off the predicted position of the unknown planet. This star was named Neptune, and after several days of observation, its motion was found to be in striking agreement with the prophesied data. The discovery of Neptune answered the question of why Uranus was "out of orbit" and proved not only the correctness of Copernicus' theory of the solar system, but also the correctness of materialistic epistemology.

Neptune is the fourth largest and third most massive planet in our solar system. Neptune has the strongest storms in the solar system (measured wind speeds of up to 2100 km/h). Neptune is one of the coldest regions of the solar system because it is the farthest from the Sun, with a temperature of -218°C at its cloud tops. Nevertheless, Neptune has a blazing hot interior, with a temperature of about 7000°C in its core. Since Neptune's atmosphere is dominated by hydrogen and helium, with traces of methane, it emits a fluorescent light of pale blue color, and Westerners call it by the name of the Roman mythological god of the sea - "Neptune", which in Chinese is translated as Neptune, with its astronomical symbol for the trident used by the god of the sea.

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September 23, 1913 - First human flight over the Mediterranean Sea

On this day, 109 years ago, September 23, 1913 (August 23, 1913 in the lunar calendar), the first human flight over the Mediterranean Sea took place.

On September 23, French pilot Roland Garros flew 347 km (273 km over sea and air) from Fréjus, near Cannes, to Bicesse Grand, near Tunis. For a long time Garros had planned to fly over the Mediterranean. Despite attempts by his friends to dissuade him, Garros decided to give it a try, and he even refused the assistance of the French naval authorities who offered to send a fleet of torpedo boats to escort him in case he was forced to fall into the water.

At 6 o'clock on the morning of the 23rd, he flew south in a Morani-Solny single-engine plane fitted with a Gnome machine. The weather seemed clear and visibility was ideal, but it was against the wind. From Ajaccio, Corsica, between 7 and 8 a.m., came a radio report that he had passed there, and he landed at Bice University at 1:45 p.m., with only 1.3 gallons of gas left.

Garros' direct flight was the longest sea flight ever completed at the time, establishing his worldwide reputation as an outstanding pilot, he won some of the most prestigious long-distance competitions in Europe, and he participated in many national flying games and set some altitude records. This amazing achievement added to his fruitful aviation accomplishments.

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September 23, 1949 - The Soviet Union successfully develops the atomic bomb

On this day, 73 years ago, September 23, 1949 (August 2, 1949 in the lunar calendar), the Soviet Union successfully developed the atomic bomb.

On Sept. 23, 1949, President Harry S. Truman's cabinet received a shocking message at a weekend meeting when Truman announced, "We have evidence that just in recent weeks the Soviet Union has exploded an atomic bomb." U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson said the information indicated the Soviet Union had developed an atomic bomb. It became the second country in the world to possess nuclear weapons.

The U.S. government acted quickly to prevent a crisis from erupting. "The calmer the American people are about this, the better," said Gen. Omar Bradley, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. "We anticipated this four years ago, so it won't change our basic defense plans." Determined to keep the U.S. atomic bomb in popular hands, Truman renewed his call for international control of atomic energy.

A U.S. Air Force spokesman said in London that the B-29 bombers deployed in Britain "will likely" be replaced by B-50s, which are capable of delivering atomic bombs.

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September 23, 1969 - China successfully conducts its first underground nuclear test

On this day, 53 years ago, September 23, 1969 (August 12, 1969 in the lunar calendar), China successfully conducted its first underground nuclear test.

The first flat-hole test was scheduled for May 9, 1960, but in order to obtain a practical missile warhead sooner and to focus on the development of the hydrogen bomb, the test was changed to an atmospheric test to measure the warhead's power and performance, and the first flat-hole nuclear test was not conducted until September 23, 1969, at 00:15 a.m. The second flat-hole test on December 17, 1978, obtained a large amount of important data and contributed much to the later underground nuclear tests. The third flat-hole test on October 17, 1976, was the first to be conducted in granite, and the fifth flat-hole test on December 19, 1984, was the first principle test of the neutron bomb. This test bomb was a complete success and laid the foundation for a comprehensive breakthrough in neutron bomb technology and the first neutron bomb nuclear test, and rebutted the U.S. accusation that China had "stolen" the secrets of the neutron bomb in terms of time frame.

The first granite shaft, 300 meters deep and 2.5 meters in diameter, was drilled in April 1975, but the first successful vertical nuclear test was not conducted until October 14, 1978, at 09:00 a.m. After the atmospheric nuclear test on October 16, 1980, China went underground. Subsequent Chinese nuclear tests went underground, including the neutron bomb and recent nuclear tests, all of which used vertical shafts. In the 1960s and 1970s, China had three nuclear tests that failed in whole or in part, but not by much, due to insufficient understanding of scientific laws.

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