As the two ends of the Earth's rotation axis, the North and South Poles have many similarities and differences.
The North Pole and the South Pole, one at the northernmost point of the Earth and one at the southernmost point of the Earth; from the globe, one at the uppermost end and one at the lowermost end, are separated by half the circumference of the Earth, about more than 20,000 kilometers.
Similarities between the Antarctic and the Arctic
1. Both the North Pole and the South Pole have the phenomenon of polar night and polar day, because the Earth is tilted body around the Sun for oval rotation, and swing back and forth, so the polar day and polar night phenomenon caused by the Earth's poles, that is, half a year of day, half a year of night, but also produced the change of the four seasons of the year. Polar day, the sun is always in the south of the Antarctic or the north of the North Pole hovering above the horizon, neither rising nor setting; polar night, six months are dark, the sun is always below the horizon, do not show their heads. However, the Antarctic and the Arctic polar night and polar day phenomenon is the opposite, when the South Pole is polar day, the North Pole is polar night, when the North Pole is polar day, the South Pole is polar night.
2. Auroras occur in both the Antarctic and the Arctic. Auroras are very beautiful, brilliant and gorgeous, and they occur frequently in both polar regions. In Antarctica, it is called the Southern Lights, and in the Arctic, it is called the Northern Lights. Of course, auroras occur during the polar night. Auroras are actually produced when a stream of charged particles from the sun (the solar wind) enters the earth's atmospheric magnetic field, causing atmospheric atoms to excite each other. The essence of the aurora is a colored plasma phenomenon.
Auroras are often seen over areas at high latitudes near the magnetic poles, that is, near the Earth's poles. The shape of auroras is generally band-like, arc-like, fluorescent and radial. Auroras cannot occur without three elements: energetic charged particles, the atmosphere, and the magnetic field. Auroras are not only found on Earth, but also on other planets or moons in our solar system that have magnetic fields.
3. Both the South Pole and the North Pole have a point, that is, two points on the Earth's rotation axis, called the South Pole and the North Pole, respectively. At these two points, direction loses its meaning. Standing at the North Pole, all directions are south; standing at the South Pole, all directions are north. And when viewed from above the Earth's South Pole, the Earth rotates clockwise; when viewed from above the North Pole, the Earth rotates counterclockwise.
The difference between the North Pole and the South Pole
1. The Arctic is an ocean surrounded by several continents. The area north of 66°34'N latitude is the Arctic Circle, and its central area is the Arctic Ocean, one of the four major oceans. The total area of the Arctic region is about 20 million square kilometers, and the area of the Arctic Ocean is about 14.8 million square kilometers, about the same size as the Antarctic continent. And the Antarctic is a piece of land surrounded by three oceans, the Antarctic area of about 14 million square kilometers, surrounded by the ocean.
2. There are eight countries in the Arctic region with a resident population of more than 2 million. In the Arctic Circle, the white snow and colorful houses form a strong visual color difference. The Antarctic, on the other hand, is extremely barren, known as the "white desert", with no permanent residents and only dozens of scientific research stations established by countries around the world.
3. The Arctic coastline is more tortuous and diverse in type. The Arctic Ocean is surrounded by three land masses in Asia, Europe and North America, and the broad continental shelf has developed many bays and marginal seas. There are both steep coasts and low, fjord-type coasts, both deltas and lake-type harbors. The Bering Strait, on the other hand, is the only way to communicate between the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The Antarctic coastline is very homogeneous, except for the snow-capped, towering ice shelves, and a bleak grayish-white hue as far as the eye can see.
4. The flora and fauna living in the Arctic and Antarctic are different, with significantly more flora and fauna in the Arctic than in the Antarctic. The Arctic is dominated by land-dwelling animals in the tundra and marine animals in the Arctic Ocean, represented by polar bears and whales. If you fly over the Arctic in summer, you will be surprised to find that the tundra is a magnificent landscape of intertwined water networks, with lakes and marshes, while water birds play on the surface and flowers bloom along the shore, much like the watery countryside in the south of China.
The Antarctic is extremely desolate, except for the summer in some areas can see moss-like plants, the other is the Antarctic penguins, there is nothing else. As for the ocean, there are mainly krill and seals in the Southern Ocean, and animals are relatively rare, while in the Arctic, in addition to beluga whales, there are Arctic wolves, Arctic foxes, Arctic rabbits, grizzly bears, reindeer, musk oxen, lemmings, etc. In the Arctic Ocean, there are fennel fish, dogfish, trout, herring, smelt, cod, salmon, in addition to walrus, seals, sea lions and other marine animals. What is even more amazing is that the Arctic is home to 12 species of resident birds, which collectively winter in the Arctic. In a word, the flora and fauna of the Arctic are far more colorful and active than those of the Antarctic.
5. Although both the North Pole and the South Pole are cold, the South Pole is much colder than the North Pole! Why is that? You should know that they are both polar regions, both at the two ends of the earth, both do not see the sun for half a year, and get about the same amount of solar heat. Why is the North Pole much warmer and wetter than the South Pole?
The extreme low temperature of the Arctic is at -60 degrees Celsius, which of course is only once in a while in the meteorological records. The annual average temperature of the Arctic is about -10 degrees, and even appears above 10 degrees Celsius in summer, and between 0 degrees Celsius and -40 degrees Celsius in winter, for example, on the day of February 1, 2021, the Arctic The temperature is at -12.8 degrees - -7.9 degrees, which is warmer than even the northern regions of our country in winter. The Antarctic is much colder, and the highest temperature in Antarctica has never been higher than -20°C. The extreme low temperature recorded in the Antarctic continent is -89.2°C, which is the lowest temperature recorded on Earth. Antarctica is also the coldest place in the world, bar none.
Antarctica is not only cold, but also windy all year round, the maximum wind can be large 14, can easily blow a person up to the sky, tents overturned, and even blow the car down. The Antarctic is a terrible dry cold, annual precipitation is surprisingly less than the desert, although here gathered more than 70% of the world's fresh water resources, but extremely little rain. In fact, the Antarctic is a continent covered with a layer of ice cover about 2 km thick on average. A large amount of fresh water resources, is this huge ice cap.
So, why is the Antarctic so much colder than the Arctic?
This is mainly due to the following two reasons.
I. Antarctica is a plateau, with an average altitude of more than 2,350 meters above sea level, the highest continent in the world, an incomparably huge ice cap covers the entire Antarctic continent. Antarctica's highest peak, Mount Vinson, is 4,897 meters above sea level, the last peak that mankind successfully summited. We all know that the higher the altitude, the lower the temperature, every 1000 meters higher, the temperature will drop 6 degrees, and the entire Antarctic continent is a huge plateau, so its temperature is at least 20 ℃ lower than the surrounding sea level of the Antarctic Ocean, coupled with high winds constantly, the only heat blown away, so the Antarctic is very cold.
While the Arctic region is mainly the Arctic Ocean, the seawater has a much higher capacity to store heat than the ice cap. In the Arctic summer, seawater absorbs a lot of heat, and when winter comes, this heat is slowly released to balance the temperature in the Arctic region. We have all learned in junior high school physics, the specific heat of liquids is much greater than solids, such as hot summer, in the hot sun exposure of sand and gravel, concrete, metal and other objects, the temperature will rise sharply, the surface temperature in the Lopbos up to 70 ℃, can easily fry eggs (so Yu Chunshun was killed). The water temperature in our surrounding ponds, lakes and rivers, on the other hand, is much lower, up to no more than 30 degrees, which is why people jump into the water in the summer to find refreshment.
Similarly, in the cold winter, the temperature of the groundwater is always kept at about 4°C, and it cannot go any lower. Otherwise, the fish in the river will be frozen. The exposed outdoor objects are different, such as a shovel put in the yard overnight, after dawn with the hand, the heart of the cold. In the cold Siberian region, the rails can be frozen "weak", brittle as paper, with a hand may break off a piece.
Second, the large amount of ice in the Antarctic reflects off the already limited heat of the sun. Snow-capped, icy, whistling winds, the sky is always a gray color. And built at an altitude of more than 3600 meters high on the Antarctic Plateau weather stations, the extreme low temperatures observed is not surprising. High altitude air is thin, ice and snow reflection, extremely difficult to retain the heat of solar radiation.
Third, the Arctic has the Atlantic warm current passing through, so the Arctic Circle not only has grasslands, flowers, and dense forests. Antarctica is a continent surrounded by the sea on all sides of the ice field, scraping the fierce cold winds throughout the year, the ice cover of more than 2000 meters thick do not melt for hundreds of thousands of years, there is no grass, trees, more flowers, only low moss-like plants.
In this way, if you are given two choices, one is to go to the North Pole, the other is to go to the South Pole, the vast majority of people will choose to go to the North Pole. Because the South Pole simply can not survive.